Spirituality | Wikipedia audio article

Spirituality | Wikipedia audio article


The meaning of spirituality has developed
and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other.Traditionally,
spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which “aims to recover the
original shape of man”, oriented at “the image of God” as exemplified by the founders and
sacred texts of the religions of the world. The term was used within early Christianity
to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during late medieval
times to include mental aspects of life. In modern times the term both spread to other
religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including
a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective
experience of a sacred dimension and the “deepest values and meanings by which people live”,
often in a context separate from organized religious institutions, such as a belief in
a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate
or sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one’s own “inner dimension”.==Etymology==
The term spirit means “animating or vital principle in man and animals”. It is derived from the Old French espirit,
which comes from the Latin word spiritus (soul, courage, vigor, breath) and is related to
spirare (to breathe). In the Vulgate the Latin word spiritus is
used to translate the Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah.The term “spiritual”, matters “concerning
the spirit”, is derived from Old French spirituel (12c.), which is derived from Latin spiritualis,
which comes from spiritus or “spirit”.The term “spirituality” is derived from Middle
French spiritualité, from Late Latin “spiritualitatem” (nominative spiritualitas), which is also
derived from Latin spiritualis.==Definition==
There is no single, widely agreed upon definition of spirituality. Surveys of the definition of the term, as
used in scholarly research, show a broad range of definitions with limited overlap. A survey of reviews by McCarroll each dealing
with the topic of spirituality gave twenty-seven explicit definitions, among which “there was
little agreement.” This impedes the systematic study of spirituality
and the capacity to communicate findings meaningfully. Furthermore, many of spirituality’s core features
are not unique to spirituality; for example self-transcendence, asceticism and the recognition
of one’s connection to all were regarded by the atheist Arthur Schopenhauer as key to
ethical life.According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process
of re-formation which “aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented
at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there
is Christ, for Buddhism, Buddha, and in Islam, Muhammad.” Houtman and Aupers suggest that modern spirituality
is a blend of humanistic psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and Eastern religions.In
modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience and the “deepest values and meanings
by which people live,” incorporating personal growth or transformation, usually in a context
separate from organized religious institutions.==Development of the meaning of spirituality
=====Classical, medieval and early modern periods
===Words translatable as ‘spirituality’ first
began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle
Ages. In a Biblical context the term means being
animated by God, to be driven by the Holy Spirit, as opposed to a life which rejects
this influence.In the 11th century this meaning changed. Spirituality began to denote the mental aspect
of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, “the ecclesiastical sphere
of light against the dark world of matter”. In the 13th century “spirituality” acquired
a social and psychological meaning. Socially it denoted the territory of the clergy:
“The ecclesiastical against the temporary possessions, the ecclesiastical against the
secular authority, the clerical class against the secular class” Psychologically, it denoted
the realm of the inner life: “The purity of motives, affections, intentions, inner dispositions,
the psychology of the spiritual life, the analysis of the feelings”.In the 17th and
18th century a distinction was made between higher and lower forms of spirituality: “A
spiritual man is one who is Christian ‘more abundantly and deeper than others’.” The word was also associated with mysticism
and quietism, and acquired a negative meaning.===Modern spirituality===Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout
the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and
elements of Asian, especially Indian, religions. Spirituality became increasingly disconnected
from traditional religious organisations and institutions. It is sometimes associated today with philosophical,
social, or political movements such as liberalism, feminist theology, and green politics.====Transcendentalism and Unitarian Universalism
====Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) was a pioneer
of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field. He was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism,
an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, which was rooted in English and German Romanticism,
the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism
of Hume, and Neo-Platonism. The Transcendentalists emphasised an intuitive,
experiential approach of religion. Following Schleiermacher, an individual’s
intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the
first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were also read by the Transcendentalists,
and influenced their thinking. They also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist
ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other
religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.====Theosophy, anthroposophy, and the perennial
philosophy====A
major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for
‘secret teachings’ in Asian religions. It has been influential on modernist streams
in several Asian religions, notably Neo-Vedanta, the revival of Theravada Buddhism, and Buddhist
modernism, which have taken over modern western notions of personal experience and universalism
and integrated them in their religious concepts. A second, related influence was Anthroposophy,
whose founder, Rudolf Steiner, was particularly interested in developing a genuine Western
spirituality, and in the ways that such a spirituality could transform practical institutions
such as education, agriculture, and medicine.The influence of Asian traditions on western modern
spirituality was also furthered by the perennial philosophy, whose main proponent Aldous Huxley
was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s Neo-Vedanta and universalism, and the spread
of social welfare, education and mass travel after World War II.====Neo-Vedanta====An important influence on western spirituality
was Neo-Vedanta, also called neo-Hinduism and Hindu Universalism, a modern interpretation
of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism and orientalism. It aims to present Hinduism as a “homogenized
ideal of Hinduism” with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine. Due to the colonisation of Asia by the western
world, since the 19th century an exchange of ideas has been taking place between the
western world and Asia, which also influenced western religiosity. Unitarianism, and the idea of Universalism,
was brought to India by missionaries, and had a major influence on neo-Hinduism via
Ram Mohan Roy’s Brahmo Samaj and Brahmoism. Roy attempted to modernise and reform Hinduism,
from the idea of Universalism. This universalism was further popularised,
and brought back to the west as neo-Vedanta, by Swami Vivekananda.====”Spiritual but not religious”====After the Second World War, spirituality and
theistic religion became increasingly disconnected, and spirituality became more oriented on subjective
experience, instead of “attempts to place the self within a broader ontological context.” A new discourse developed, in which (humanistic)
psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and eastern religions are being blended, to
reach the true self by self-disclosure, free expression and meditation.The distinction
between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the
late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. Authors such as Chris Griscom and Shirley
MacLaine explored it in numerous ways in their books. Paul Heelas noted the development within New
Age circles of what he called “seminar spirituality”: structured offerings complementing consumer
choice with spiritual options. Among other factors, declining membership
of organized religions and the growth of secularism in the western world have given rise to this
broader view of spirituality. The term “spiritual” is now frequently used
in contexts in which the term “religious” was formerly employed. Both theists and atheists have criticized
this development.==Traditional spirituality=====Abrahamic faiths=======Judaism====
Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism) (Hebrew: “Yahadut Rabanit” – יהדות
רבנית) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the
codification of the Talmud. It is characterised by the belief that the
Written Torah (“Law” or “Instruction”) cannot be correctly interpreted without reference
to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by
the law (called halakha, “the way”). Judaism knows a variety of religious observances:
ethical rules, prayers, religious clothing, holidays, shabbat, pilgrimages, Torah reading,
dietary laws, etc. Kabbalah (literally “receiving”), is an esoteric
method, discipline and school of thought of Judaism. Its definition varies according to the tradition
and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to
its later Christian, New Age, or Occultist syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant
to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal and mysterious Ein Sof (no end) and
the mortal and finite universe (his creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations,
it is not a religious denomination in itself. Inside Judaism, it forms the foundations of
mystical religious interpretation. Outside Judaism, its scriptures are read outside
the traditional canons of organised religion. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the
universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological
questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding
of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realisation. Hasidic Judaism, meaning “piety” (or “loving
kindness”), is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularisation
and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. It was founded in 18th-century Eastern Europe
by Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov as a reaction against overly legalistic Judaism. His example began the characteristic veneration
of leadership in Hasidism as embodiments and intercessors of Divinity for the followers. Opposite to this, Hasidic teachings cherished
the sincerity and concealed holiness of the unlettered common folk, and their equality
with the scholarly elite. The emphasis on the Immanent Divine presence
in everything gave new value to prayer and deeds of kindness, alongside Rabbinic supremacy
of study, and replaced historical mystical (kabbalistic) and ethical (musar) asceticism
and admonishment with optimism, encouragement, and daily fervour. This populist emotional revival accompanied
the elite ideal of nullification to paradoxical Divine Panentheism, through intellectual articulation
of inner dimensions of mystical thought.====Christianity====Catholic spirituality is the spiritual practice
of living out a personal act of faith (fides qua creditur) following the acceptance of
faith (fides quae creditur). Although all Catholics are expected to pray
together at Mass, there are many different forms of spirituality and private prayer which
have developed over the centuries. Each of the major religious orders of the
Catholic Church and other lay groupings have their own unique spirituality – its own
way of approaching God in prayer and in living out the Gospel. Christian mysticism refers to the development
of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often been connected to mystical theology,
especially in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. The attributes and means by which Christian
mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul’s
mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture (i.e., Lectio
Divina). Progressive Christianity is a contemporary
movement which seeks to remove the supernatural claims of the faith and replace them with
a post-critical understanding of biblical spirituality based on historical and scientific
research. It focuses on the lived experience of spirituality
over historical dogmatic claims, and accepts that the faith is both true and a human construction,
and that spiritual experiences are psychologically and neurally real and useful.====Islam=========Five pillars=====The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also
arkan ad-din, “pillars of religion”) are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory
for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for
worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (shahadah), (2) daily
prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage
to Mecca (hajj) at least once-in-a-lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the
essential details for the performance of these acts.=====Sufism=====The best known form of Islamic mystic spirituality
is the Sufi tradition (famous through Rumi and Hafiz) in which a spiritual master or
pir transmits spiritual discipline to students.Sufism or taṣawwuf (Arabic: تصوّف‎) is defined
by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally
known as a ṣūfī (صُوفِيّ). Sufis believe they are practicing ihsan (perfection
of worship) as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad, Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing
Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you. Sufis consider themselves as the original
true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. They are strong adherents to the principal
of tolerance, peace and against any form of violence. The Sufi have suffered severe persecution
by more rigid and fundamentalist groups such as the Wahhabi and Salafi movement. In 1843 the Senussi Sufi were forced to flee
Mecca and Medina and head to Sudan and Libya.Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as “a science
whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God”. Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi
Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, “a science through which one can know how to travel into the
presence of the Divine, purify one’s inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety
of praiseworthy traits”.=====Jihad=====Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a
noun meaning “struggle”. There are two commonly accepted meanings of
jihad: an inner spiritual struggle and an outer physical struggle. The “greater jihad” is the inner struggle
by a believer to fulfill his religious duties. This non-violent meaning is stressed by both
Muslim and non-Muslim authors. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, an 11th-century Islamic
scholar, referenced a statement by the companion of Muhammad, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah: The Prophet … returned from one of his battles,
and thereupon told us, ‘You have arrived with an excellent arrival, you have come from the
Lesser Jihad to the Greater Jihad – the striving of a servant (of Allah) against his
desires (holy war).”===Asian traditions=======Buddhism====Buddhist practices are known as Bhavana, which
literally means “development” or “cultivating” or “producing” in the sense of “calling into
existence.” It is an important concept in Buddhist praxis
(Patipatti). The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction
with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or
cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of loving kindness). When used on its own bhavana signifies ‘spiritual
cultivation’ generally. Various Buddhist Paths to liberation developed
throughout the ages. Best-known is the Noble Eightfold Path, but
others include the Bodhisattva Path and Lamrim.====Hinduism====Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical
order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding
holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic. Within this diffuse and open structure, spirituality
in Hindu philosophy is an individual experience, and referred to as ksaitrajña (Sanskrit:
क्षैत्रज्ञ). It defines spiritual practice as one’s journey
towards moksha, awareness of self, the discovery of higher truths, true nature of reality,
and a consciousness that is liberated and content.=====Four paths=====
Traditionally, Hinduism identifies three mārga (ways) of spiritual practice, namely Jñāna,
the way of knowledge; Bhakti, the way of devotion; and Karma yoga, the way of selfless action. In the 19th century Vivekananda, in his neo-Vedanta
synthesis of Hinduism, added Rāja yoga, the way of contemplation and meditation, as a
fourth way, calling all of them “yoga.”Jñāna marga is a path often assisted by a guru (teacher)
in one’s spiritual practice. Bhakti marga is a path of faith and devotion
to deity or deities; the spiritual practice often includes chanting, singing and music
– such as in kirtans – in front of idols, or images of one or more deity, or a devotional
symbol of the holy. Karma marga is the path of one’s work, where
diligent practical work or vartta (Sanskrit: वार्त्ता, profession) becomes
in itself a spiritual practice, and work in daily life is perfected as a form of spiritual
liberation and not for its material rewards. Rāja marga is the path of cultivating necessary
virtues, self-discipline, tapas (meditation), contemplation and self-reflection sometimes
with isolation and renunciation of the world, to a pinnacle state called samādhi. This state of samādhi has been compared to
peak experience.There is a rigorous debate in Indian literature on relative merits of
these theoretical spiritual practices. For example, Chandogyopanishad suggests that
those who engage in ritualistic offerings to gods and priests will fail in their spiritual
practice, while those who engage in tapas will succeed; Svetasvataropanishad suggests
that a successful spiritual practice requires a longing for truth, but warns of becoming
‘false ascetic’ who go through the mechanics of spiritual practice without meditating on
the nature of Self and universal Truths. In the practice of Hinduism, suggest modern
era scholars such as Vivekananda, the choice between the paths is up to the individual
and a person’s proclivities. Other scholars suggest that these Hindu spiritual
practices are not mutually exclusive, but overlapping. These four paths of spirituality are also
known in Hinduism outside India, such as in Balinese Hinduism, where it is called Catur
Marga (literally: four paths).=====Schools and spirituality=====
Different schools of Hinduism encourage different spiritual practices. In Tantric school for example, the spiritual
practice has been referred to as sādhanā. It involves initiation into the school, undergoing
rituals, and achieving moksha liberation by experiencing union of cosmic polarities. The Hare Krishna school emphasizes bhakti
yoga as spiritual practice. In Advaita Vedanta school, the spiritual practice
emphasizes jñāna yoga in stages: samnyasa (cultivate virtues), sravana (hear, study),
manana (reflect) and dhyana (nididhyasana, contemplate).====Sikhism====Sikhism considers spiritual life and secular
life to be intertwined: “In the Sikh Weltanschauung…the temporal world is part of the Infinite Reality
and partakes of its characteristics.” Guru Nanak described living an “active, creative,
and practical life” of “truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity” as being higher than
a purely contemplative life.The 6th Sikh Guru Guru Hargobind re-affirmed that the political/temporal
(Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms are mutually coexistent. According to the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadhur,
the ideal Sikh should have both Shakti (power that resides in the temporal), and Bhakti
(spiritual meditative qualities). This was developed into the concept of the
Saint Soldier by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh.According to Guru Nanak, the goal is
to attain the “attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment,
in the course of daily life”, the polar opposite to a self-centered existence. Nanak talks further about the one God or Akal
(timelessness) that permeates all life). and which must be seen with ‘the inward eye’,
or the ‘heart’, of a human being.In Sikhism there is no dogma, priests, monastics or yogis.===African spirituality===In some African contexts, spirituality is
considered a belief system that guides the welfare of society and the people therein,
and eradicates sources of unhappiness occasioned by evil.==Contemporary spirituality==The term “spiritual” is now frequently used
in contexts in which the term “religious” was formerly employed. Contemporary spirituality is also called “post-traditional
spirituality” and “New Age spirituality”. Hanegraaf makes a distinction between two
“New Age” movements: New Age in a restricted sense, which originated primarily in mid-twentieth
century England and had its roots in Theosophy and Anthroposophy, and “New Age” in a general
sense, which emerged in the later 1970s when increasing numbers of people … began
to perceive a broad similarity between a wide variety of “alternative ideas” and pursuits,
and started to think of them as part of one “movement””. Those who speak of spirituality outside of
religion often define themselves as spiritual but not religious and generally believe in
the existence of different “spiritual paths,” emphasizing the importance of finding one’s
own individual path to spirituality. According to one 2005 poll, about 24% of the
United States population identifies itself as spiritual but not religious.===Characteristics===
Modern spirituality is centered on the “deepest values and meanings by which people live.” It embraces the idea of an ultimate or an
alleged immaterial reality. It envisions an inner path enabling a person
to discover the essence of his/her being. Not all modern notions of spirituality embrace
transcendental ideas. Secular spirituality emphasizes humanistic
ideas on moral character (qualities such as love, compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness,
contentment, responsibility, harmony, and a concern for others). These are aspects of life and human experience
which go beyond a purely materialist view of the world without necessarily accepting
belief in a supernatural reality or divine being. Nevertheless, many humanists (e.g. Bertrand
Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre) who clearly value the non-material, communal and virtuous aspects
of life reject this usage of the term spirituality as being overly-broad (i.e. it effectively
amounts to saying “everything and anything that is good and virtuous is necessarily spiritual”). In 1930 Russell, a renowned atheist, wrote
“… one’s ego is no very large part of the world. The man [sic.] who can center his thoughts
and hopes upon something transcending self can find a certain peace in the ordinary troubles
of life which is impossible to the pure egoist.” Similarly, Aristotle – one of the first
known Western thinkers to demonstrate that morality, virtue and goodness can be derived
without appealing to supernatural forces – even argued that “men create Gods in their own
image” (not the other way around). Moreover, theistic and atheistic critics alike
dismiss the need for the “secular spirituality” label on the basis that appears to be nothing
more than obscurantism in that i) the term “spirit” is commonly taken as denoting the
existence of unseen / otherworldly / life-giving forces and ii) words such as morality, philanthropy
and humanism already efficiently and succinctly describe the prosocial-orientation and civility
that the phrase secular spirituality is meant to convey but without risk of potential confusion
that one is referring to something supernatural. Although personal well-being, both physical
and psychological, is said to be an important aspect of modern spirituality, this does not
imply spirituality is essential to achieving happiness (e.g. see). Free-thinkers who reject notions that the
numinous/non-material is important to living well can be just as happy as more spiritually-oriented
individuals (see)Contemporary spirituality theorists assert that spirituality develops
inner peace and forms a foundation for happiness. For example, meditation and similar practices
are suggested to help the practitioner cultivate her/his inner life and character. Ellison and Fan (2008) assert that spirituality
causes a wide array of positive health outcomes, including “morale, happiness, and life satisfaction.”. However, Schuurmans-Stekhoven (2013) actively
attempted to replicate this research and found more “mixed” results. Nevertheless, spirituality has played a central
role in some self-help movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous: if an alcoholic failed to perfect and enlarge
his spiritual life through work and self-sacrifice for others, he could not survive the certain
trials and low spots ahead Yet such spiritually-informed treatment approaches
have been challenged as pseudoscience, are far from uniformly curative and may for non-believers
cause harm (see iatrogenesis).===Spiritual experience===”Spiritual experience” plays a central role
in modern spirituality. This notion has been popularised by both western
and Asian authors. Important early 20th century western writers
who studied the phenomenon of spirituality, and their works, include William James, The
Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), and Rudolph Otto, especially The Idea of the
Holy (1917). James’ notions of “spiritual experience” had
a further influence on the modernist streams in Asian traditions, making them even further
recognisable for a western audience.William James popularized the use of the term “religious
experience” in his The Varieties of Religious Experience. It has also influenced the understanding of
mysticism as a distinctive experience which supplies knowledge.Wayne Proudfoot traces
the roots of the notion of “religious experience” further back to the German theologian Friedrich
Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of “religious experience” was used
by Schleiermacher to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. It was adopted by many scholars of religion,
of which William James was the most influential.Major Asian influences were Vivekananda and D.T.
Suzuki. Swami Vivekananda popularised a modern syncretitistic
Hinduism, in which the authority of the scriptures was replaced by an emphasis on personal experience. D.T. Suzuki had a major influence on the popularisation
of Zen in the west and popularized the idea of enlightenment as insight into a timeless,
transcendent reality. Another example can be seen in Paul Brunton’s
A Search in Secret India, which introduced Ramana Maharshi and Meher Baba to a western
audience. Spiritual experiences can include being connected
to a larger reality, yielding a more comprehensive self; joining with other individuals or the
human community; with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm.===Spiritual practices===Waaijman discerns four forms of spiritual
practices: Somatic practices, especially deprivation
and diminishment. Deprivation aims to purify the body. Diminishment concerns the repulsement of ego-oriented
impulses. Examples include fasting and poverty. Psychological practices, for example meditation. Social practices. Examples include the practice of obedience
and communal ownership, reforming ego-orientedness into other-orientedness. Spiritual. All practices aim at purifying ego-centeredness,
and direct the abilities at the divine reality.Spiritual practices may include meditation, mindfulness,
prayer, the contemplation of sacred texts, ethical development, and spiritual retreats
in a convent. Love and/or compassion are often described
as the mainstay of spiritual development.Within spirituality is also found “a common emphasis
on the value of thoughtfulness, tolerance for breadth and practices and beliefs, and
appreciation for the insights of other religious communities, as well as other sources of authority
within the social sciences.”==Science===== Relation to science===Since the scientific revolution of the 18th-century
Enlightenment, the relationship of science to religion and to spirituality has developed
in complex ways. Historian John Hedley Brooke describes wide
variations: The natural sciences have been invested with
religious meaning, with antireligious implications and, in many contexts, with no religious significance
at all.” Brooke has proposed that the currently held
popular notion of antagonisms between science and religion has historically originated with
“thinkers with a social or political axe to grind” rather than with the natural philosophers
themselves. Though physical and biological scientists
today see no need for supernatural explanations to describe reality, some scientists continue
to regard science and spirituality as complementary, not contradictory, and are willing to debate,
rather than simply classifying spirituality and science as non-overlapping magisteria. A few religious leaders have shown openness
to modern science and its methods. The 14th Dalai Lama, for example, has proposed
that if a scientific analysis conclusively showed certain claims in Buddhism to be false,
then the claims must be abandoned and the findings of science accepted.===Holism===During the twentieth century the relationship
between science and spirituality has been influenced both by Freudian psychology, which
has accentuated the boundaries between the two areas by accentuating individualism and
secularism, and by developments in particle physics, which reopened the debate about complementarity
between scientific and religious discourse and rekindled for many an interest in holistic
conceptions of reality. These holistic conceptions were championed
by New Age spiritualists in a type of quantum mysticism that they claim justifies their
spiritual beliefs, though quantum physicists themselves on the whole reject such attempts
as being pseudoscientific.===Scientific
research=======
Health and well-being====Various studies (most originating from North
America) have reported a positive correlation between spirituality and mental well-being
in both healthy people and those encountering a range of physical illnesses or psychological
disorders. Although spiritual individuals tend to be
optimistic, report greater social support, and experience higher intrinsic meaning in
life, strength, and inner peace, whether the correlation represents a causal link remains
contentious. Both supporters and opponents of this claim
agree that past statistical findings are difficult to interpret, in large part because of the
ongoing disagreement over how spirituality should be defined and measured. There is also evidence that an agreeable / positive
temperament and/or a tendency toward sociability (which all correlate with spirituality) might
actually be the key psychological features that predispose people to subsequently adopt
a spiritual orientation and that these characteristics, not spiritually per se, add to well-being. There is also some suggestion that the benefits
associated with spirituality and religiosity might arise from being a member of a close-knit
community. Social bonds available via secular sources
(i.e., not unique to spirituality or faith-based groups) might just as effectively raise well-being. In sum, spirituality may not be the “active
ingredient” (i.e. past association with psychological well-being measures might reflect a reverse
causation or effects from other variables that correlate with spirituality), and that
the effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, or virtue – personality traits common in
many non-spiritual people yet known to be slightly more common among the spiritual – may
better account for spirituality’s apparent correlation with mental health and social
support.=====Intercessionary prayer=====
Masters and Spielmans conducted a meta-analysis of all the available and reputable research
examining the effects of distant intercessory prayer. They found no discernible health effects from
being prayed for by others. In fact, one large and scientifically rigorous
study by Herbert Benson and colleagues revealed that intercessory prayer had no effect on
recovery from cardiac arrest, but patients told people were praying for them actually
had an increased risk of medical complications. Knowing others are praying for you could actually
be medically detrimental.=====Spiritual care in health care professions
=====In the health-care professions there is growing
interest in “spiritual care”, to complement the medical-technical approaches and to improve
the outcomes of medical treatments. Puchalski et al. argue for “compassionate
systems of care” in a spiritual context.====Spiritual experiences====
Neuroscientists have examined brain functioning during reported spiritual experiences finding
that certain neurotransmitters and specific areas of the brain are involved. Moreover, experimenters have also successfully
induced spiritual experiences in individuals by administering psychoactive agents known
to elicit euphoria and perceptual distortions. Conversely, religiosity and spirituality can
also be dampened by electromagnetic stimulation of the brain. These results have motivated some leading
theorists to speculate that spirituality may be a benign subtype of psychosis (see). Benign in the sense that the same aberrant
sensory perceptions that those suffering clinical psychoses evaluate as distressingly in-congruent
and inexplicable are instead interpreted by spiritual individuals as positive – as personal
and meaningful transcendent experiences.==See also====
Notes

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