Saint Vincent and the Grenadines /seɪnt ˈvɪnsənt
ænd ðə ɡrɛnəˈdiːnz/ is an island country in the Lesser Antilles Island arc, in the
southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lie at the southern end of the eastern
border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean. The country is also
known as St. Vincent. Its 389 km2 territory consists of the main
island of Saint Vincent and the northern two-thirds of the Grenadines, which are a chain of smaller
islands stretching south from Saint Vincent Island to Grenada. The main island of Saint
Vincent measures 18 km long, 11 km in width and 344 km2 in area. From the most northern
to the most southern points, the Grenadine islands belonging to Saint Vincent span 60.4 km
with a combined area of 45 km2. Most of the nation lies within the Hurricane Belt.
To the north of Saint Vincent lies Saint Lucia, to the east Barbados. Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines is a densely populated country with approximately 120,000 inhabitants.
Its capital is Kingstown, also its main port. The country has a French and British colonial
history and is now part of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, CARICOM, the
Commonwealth of Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas and the Community of Latin
American and Caribbean States. History Early settlements
The island now known as Saint Vincent was originally named Youloumain by the native
Island Caribs who called themselves Kalina/Carina. The Caribs aggressively prevented European
settlement on Saint Vincent until 1719. Prior to this, formerly enslaved Africans, who had
either been shipwrecked or who had escaped from Barbados, Saint Lucia and Grenada and
sought refuge in mainland Saint Vincent, intermarried with the Caribs and became known as Black
Caribs or Garifuna. French colony
Beginning in 1719, French settlers from Martinique gained control of the island and began cultivating
coffee, tobacco, indigo, cotton, and sugar on plantations. These plantations were worked
by enslaved Africans. In 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded control of Saint Vincent
to Britain, which began a program of colonial plantation development that was resisted by
the Caribs. France captured the island in 1779, but the British regained Saint Vincent
under the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was an ancillary treaty to the Treaty of Paris,
through which Great Britain officially recognised the end of the American Revolutionary War.
British colony Between 1783 and 1796, there was again conflict
between the British and the Black Caribs, who were led by defiant Paramount Chief Joseph
Chatoyer. In 1797 British General Sir Ralph Abercromby put an end to the open conflict
by crushing an uprising which had been supported by the French radical, Victor Hugues. More
than 5,000 Black Caribs were eventually deported to Roatán, an island off the coast of Honduras.
Slavery was abolished in Saint Vincent in 1834, and an apprenticeship period followed
which ended in 1838. After its end, labour shortages on the plantations resulted, and
this was initially addressed by the immigration of indentured servants. In the late 1840s
many Portuguese immigrants arrived from Madeira and between 1861 and 1888 shiploads of East
Indian labourers arrived. Conditions remained harsh for both former slaves and immigrant
agricultural workers, as depressed world sugar prices kept the economy stagnant until the
start of the 20th century. 20th and 21st centuries
From 1763 until its independence in 1979, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passed through
various stages of colonial status under the British. A representative assembly was authorised
in 1776, Crown Colony government was installed in 1877, a legislative council was created
in 1925, and universal adult suffrage was granted in 1951.
During the period of its control of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the British made
several unsuccessful attempts to affiliate the island with other Windward Islands. This
would have simplified Britain’s control over the region through a unified administration.
In the 1960s, several regional islands under British control, including Saint Vincent,
also made an independent attempt to unify. The unification was to be called the West
Indies Federation and was driven by a desire to gain freedom from British rule. The attempt
collapsed in 1962. Saint Vincent was granted “associate statehood”
status by Britain on 27 October 1969. This gave Saint Vincent complete control over its
internal affairs but was short of full independence. On 27 October 1979, following a referendum
under Milton Cato, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became the last of the Windward Islands to
gain independence. Independence came on the 10th anniversary of Saint Vincent’s associate
statehood status. Natural disasters have featured in the country’s
history. In 1902, La Soufrière volcano erupted, killing 2,000 people. Much farmland was damaged,
and the economy deteriorated. In April 1979, La Soufrière erupted again. Although no one
was killed, thousands were evacuated, and again there was extensive agricultural damage.
In 1980 and 1987, hurricanes damaged many banana and coconut plantations. Hurricane
seasons were also very active in 1998 and 1999, with Hurricane Lenny in 1999 causing
extensive damage to the west coast of the island.
On 25 November 2009, voters were asked to approve a new constitution in a referendum.
The new constitution proposed to make the country a republic and replacing Queen Elizabeth
II as head of state with a non-executive President. A two-thirds majority was required, but it
was defeated by 29,019 votes to 22,493. Government and politics Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a parliamentary
democracy and constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, bearing
the title Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The Queen does not reside in the islands and
is represented in the country by the Governor General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
currently Sir Frederick Ballantyne. The office of Governor General has mostly
ceremonial functions including the opening of the islands’ House of Assembly and the
appointment of various government officials. Control of the government rests with the elected
Prime Minister and his or her cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Ralph Gonsalves,
elected in 2001 as head of the Unity Labour Party.
The legislative branch of government is the unicameral House of Assembly of Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines, seating 15 elected members representing single-member constiuencies and
six appointed members known as Senators. The parliamentary term of office is five years,
although the Prime Minister may call elections at any time. The political parties with parliamentary
representation are the New Democratic Party NDP and the Unity Labour Party. Parliamentary
opposition made of the largest minority stakeholder in general elections, headed by the leader
of the opposition. The current opposition leader is Arnhim Eustace.
The judicial branch of government is divided into district courts, the Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court and the Privy Council in London being the court of last resort.
The country has no formal armed forces, although the Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Police Force includes a Special Service Unit as well as a militia that has a supporting
role on the island. In 2013, Saint Vincent called for European
nations to pay reparations for the slave trade. Geography Saint Vincent and the Grenadines lies to the
west of Barbados south of Saint Lucia and north of Grenada in the Windward Islands of
the Lesser Antilles, an island arc of the Caribbean Sea. The islands of Saint Vincent
and the Grenadines include the main island of Saint Vincent 344 km2 and the northern
two-thirds of the Grenadines 45 km2, which are a chain of small islands stretching south
from Saint Vincent to Grenada. The island of Saint Vincent is volcanic and
includes little level ground. The windward side of the island is very rocky and steep,
while the leeward side has more sandy beaches and bays. The country’s highest peak is La
Soufrière volcano at 1,234 m. Administrative divisions Administratively, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
is divided into six parishes. Five parishes are on Saint Vincent, while the sixth is made
up of the Grenadine islands. Kingstown is located in the Parish of Saint George and
is the capital city and central administrative centre of the country.
Economy Agriculture, dominated by banana production,
is the most important sector of this lower-middle-income economy. The services sector, based mostly
on a growing tourist industry, is also important. The government has been relatively unsuccessful
at introducing new industries, and the unemployment rate remains high at 19.8% in the 1991 census
to 15% in 2001. The continuing dependence on a single crop represents the biggest obstacle
to the islands’ development as tropical storms wiped out substantial portions of crops in
many years. The tourism sector has considerable potential
for development. The recent filming of the Pirates of the Caribbean movies on the island
has helped to expose the country to more potential visitors and investors. Recent growth has
been stimulated by strong activity in the construction sector and an improvement in
tourism. Argyle International Airport is currently
under construction. There is a small manufacturing sector and a small offshore financial sector
whose particularly restrictive secrecy laws have caused some international concern. In
addition, the natives of Bequia are permitted to hunt up to four Humpback Whales per year
under IWC subsistence quotas. Demographics The population as estimated in July 2013 was
103,220. The ethnic composition was 66% African descent, 19% of mixed descent, 6% East Indian,
4% Europeans, 2% Island Carib and 3% others. Most Vincentians are the descendants of African
people brought to the island to work on plantations. There are other ethnic groups such as Portuguese
and East Indians, both brought in to work on the plantations after the abolishing of
slavery by the British living on the island. There is also a growing Chinese population.
Cultural Sport Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has its own
Football league, the NLA Premier League, and also a national football team. A notable Vincentian
footballer is Ezra Hendrickson, former national team captain who played at several Major League
Soccer clubs in the United States and is now an assistant coach with the Seattle Sounders
FC. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines also has
its own national rugby union team which is ranked 84th in the world.
In addition, netball is a major local sport and comprises women only. Other notable sports
played at the regional level are track and field and tennis.
Music Music popular in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
includes big drum, calypso, soca, steelpan and reggae. String band music, quadrille and
bele music and traditional storytelling are also popular. One of the most successful St.
Vincent natives is Kevin Lyttle. He was named Cultural Ambassador for the Island September
19, 2013. The national anthem of Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines is “Saint Vincent, Land so beautiful”, adopted upon independence in 1979.
Languages While the official language is English most
Vincentians speak Vincentian Creole. English is used in education, government, religion,
and other formal domains, while Creole is used in informal situations such as in the
home and among friends. Communications
In 2010, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines had 21,700 telephone land lines. Its land
telephone system is fully automatic and covers the entire island and all of the inhabited
Grenadine islands. In 2002, there were 10,000 mobile phones. By 2010, this number had increased
to 131,800. Mobile phone service is available in most areas of Saint Vincent as well as
the Grenadines. The country has ten FM radio stations including;
89.1 Jem Radio, 89.7 NBC Radio, 95.7 and 105.7 Praise FM, 96.7 Nice Radio, 97.1 Hot 97, 98.3
Star FM, 99.9 We FM, 100.5 First FM, 103.7 Hitz FM, and 104.3 Cross Country Radio. It
has one television broadcast station ZBG-TV and one cable television provider.
The country has Three ISPs that provide cellular telephone and internet service.
See also Outline of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Index of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines-related articles
Commonwealth of Nations Military of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines References Further reading
Bobrow, Jill & Jinkins, Dana. 1985. St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 4th Edition Revised and
Updated, Concepts Publishing Co., Waitsfield, Vermont, 1993.
Cosover, Mary Jo. 1989. “St. Vincent and the Grenadines.” In Islands of the Commonwealth
Caribbean: A Regional Study, edited by Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty. US Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. CIA Factbook entry
Gonsalves, Ralph E. 1994. History and the Future: A Caribbean Perspective. Quik-Print,
Kingstown, St. Vincent. US Dept of State Profile
Williams, Eric. 1964. British Historians and the West Indies, Port-of-Spain.
External links Government
Official website Website of the Prime Minister of St. Vincent
and the Grenadines Chief of State and Cabinet Members
General information Saint Vincent and the Grenadines entry at
The World Factbook Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from UCB
Libraries GovPubs Saint Vincent and the Grenadines at DMOZ
St Vincent and the Grenadines from the BBC News
Wikimedia Atlas of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Key Development Forecasts for St. Vincent
and the Grenadines from International Futures