Before the mid 20th century Jesus Christ was the most potent moral figure in the Western imagination. We decided collectively what goodness was with reference to him. Whether or not you were a believer, his moral authority was pretty much unimpeachable. Since 1945 the most potent moral figure in Western culture has been Adolf Hitler, of course in his case it’s evil that we define with reference to him. But he has become the defining reference point for that. He is a figure whose criticism whose rejection is absolutely universally shared. And to praise or defend him is quite rightly to make oneself a monster. The result is that we’ve now got a new secular definition of morality and a secular iconography of evil and even the way that the story of the Second World War is told and retold in fiction and in cinema, shows the power that that story has as the moral basis for our culture. These themes come together as an attempt to create a new kind of morality which first of all rebases religion as a moral enterprise above all and then sets morality apart from its religious origins. I tell that story by thinking about the two most significant figures in the Western moral imagination and that step away from a religiously defined morality towards a morality which is defined by a set of secular events. Seems to me really crucial in understanding the history of modern unbelief.