LIVE – David Saint-Jacques launches the Astro Pi challenge for young Canadians

LIVE – David Saint-Jacques launches the Astro Pi challenge for young Canadians


Good morning everyone. My name is Shannon Burton and I am the
principal of Lord Selkirk Elementary. It is my honour to welcome all of you here today. I would like to recognize that we live, work and
play on the traditional unceded territory of the
Squamish, (inaudible) Nations. Welcome to all of our students, staff and
community members. I would like to acknowledge Vancouver School
Board Associate Superintendent Rob Schindel, Aaron Davis, Director of instruction, and
Vancouver School Board of Trustees Janet
Fraser and Lois Chan-Pedley, who are here with us today. We would also like to welcome Luc Simard,
Director General of National Research Council’s
Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Centre. Welcome to Joshua Kutryk, an astronaut with
the Canadian Space Agency, who is our special
guest. Thank you to all these honoured guests for
joining us and supporting this exciting
educational experience for our students and community. Finally,
welcome to everyone who is joining us online. The Canadian Space Agency is collaborating
with the European Space Agency and Kids
Code Jeunesse, to bring Astro Pi to Canada. We are fortunate to have the Canadian Space
Agency and Kids Code Jeunesse with us today. The students have worked on a unique challenge
that could take the code they have written into
space. This project has allowed students to engage in
innovative learning, providing them with an opportunity to connect
technology to real-life experiences. The Vancouver School District recognizes the
emphasis on digital literacy in BC’s new
curriculum, so together with partners the District has
expanded digital learning initiatives that provide students with greater 21st Century
learning opportunities. It is these partnerships with community
organizations that provide both teacher
development and educational experiences for students that all
enhance their learning journey. We know that behind educational experiences
such as this one are amazing educators. The team at Lord Selkirk has eagerly embarked
on Astro Pi – Mission Zero, with their students. Thank you to Teacher-Librarian, Madame Astrid,
Mr. Dominic – the Vice Principal – and the Selkirk teachers, Mr. Hoflin, Mr. Chou,
Madame Michel, Madame Cynthia, Miss
Kushniruk, and Miss Chan and Mrs. Smith. Without their enthusiasm and interest this
project would not have happened. Shortly, we will have a chance to get the first live
connection in British-Columbia with Canadian Space Agency astronaut David
Saint-Jacques. He will respond to student questions directly
from the International Space Station. Without further ado please welcome Ms. Indra
Kubicek, Chief Operating Officer and Chief
Financial Officer at Kids Code Jeunesse. Thank you, Miss Burton, for the introduction.
Hello everyone. I am pleased to be here with you today to
launch the Astro Pi challenge in Canada. I am here from Kids Code Jeunesse, a not-for-
profit organization that wants to make sure that
you are able to create, communicate and innovate with technology. The
Astro Pi challenge brings space and coding
together. At Kids Code Jeunesse we believe this is the
perfect way to inspire young people to acquire
the skills needed to thrive in a digital future. This code in the stars initiative was created by
Kids Code Jeunesse in collaboration with the
Canadian Space Agency. It leverages the European Astro Pi challenge to
spark an interest in space exploration and make
coding accessible to everyone. Mission Zero is the entry-level Astro Pi activity. Student teams write a simple code to display a
message for astronauts on the Astro Pi
computer aboard the Space Station. No special equipment or prior coding skills are
needed, and all entries that follow the program
rules are guaranteed to be run in space. European astronaut Alexander Gerst started this
year’s competition and Canadian astronaut David Saint-Jacques will
continue the good work of Alex for Astro Pi on
board the Space Station. International collaboration provides opportunities
for countries like Canada to participate in these
awe-inspiring programs. With this hands-on activity young Canadians
like you have the opportunity to learn coding and
other digital skills, and just imagine; your code will run in space
while Canadian Space Agency astronaut David
Saint-Jacques is up there. By learning to code you will be able to build and
create all sorts of cool things. You might even build the next Fortnite or
Instagram. I would like to finish by giving a huge thank you
to both the staff and students of Lord Selkirk
Elementary for taking part in this activity with us. It is evident
that so much passion and energy has gone into
making today possible. And I would now like to invite Madame Astrid to
tell us a bit more about our unplugged activity.
Merci beaucoup. Thank you. Hello, everybody. I am excited to invite Miss
Smith and Division 11 to come up to the front.
Come on up. So, Mrs. Smith and Division 11 have prepared for you today an unplugged activity. An unplugged activity is a fun and easy way to introduce students to the basic fundamental concepts of coding, without using computers. It teaches them how to take big problems and break them down into smaller steps. Their challenge was to create a beating heart using only people and paper. We hope you will enjoy Selkirk’s beating heart. Thank you so much, Division 11. That was fantastic. You can take a bow. And now, it gives me great pleasure to introduce you to Joshua Kutryk and Veedoony and Yona, if you would please come up to the front. Test pilot and fighter pilot Joshua Kutryk has flown over 25 aircrafts. He was recruited by the Canadian Space Agency in 2017 and he is taking a short break today to spend some time at this event with us, and we are thrilled to have you today, Joshua. I’m thrilled to be here. Thank you. Over the course of the last few months the students at Selkirk Elementary have had an opportunity to learn coding, facilitated by mentors from Kids Code Jeunesse and from their teachers as well. We wouldn’t have been able to do this without the help of all our mentors from Kids Code Jeunesse, Mavis, Yasmin, Sam, Abdereme, Panav, Leo and even volunteers from Van Tech Secondary School (inaudible). The Astro Pi – Mission Zero project is a way for students to experience coding and they have been given a mission to brighten the daily routine of astronauts on the ISS. Although 130 students participated in this project – you can see them all with blue shirts today – and they have all created fantastic projects that they can all be proud of and that will be sent up to the ISS, we have chosen two students today, to talk about their project. Yona and Veedoony, we chose your projects, not only because you responded to all the required criteria, but also because we felt that your message was heartwarming. So, congratulations, and we hope that you will tell us a little bit about your project. So, Hi. My name is Veedoony. My name is Yona. And we will just start with our message that we sent. We thought it would be fun to just send a message saying: You inspire us all, in French. You inspire all of us, is the message we sent. Yes. Thanks for sharing that. I’m looking at your script, behind you, and I really like it. I am not a pro quoter but I have done some, so it looks good, and thanks for doing it. How did you — why did you choose that message? We thought it would be nice for an astronaut who is way into space, to hear something nice. And without that maybe he — we want him to know that we are really proud of him, his nation — his whole nation is proud of him, and that he’s showing the younger generation that we can accomplish so many things, even if they are so far away. Yes. I think you’re right. Thank you. And I know David quite well. We’re going to talk to him here in a few minutes but he would be thrilled and heartwarmed that you said that, so thanks for saying it. Are we going to — we have it playing on the screen; right? I think? Yes, we see it; very nice. I think that this is — by the way, just to talk a little bit about (inaudible). I think it is an awesome program. Coding is just so important. It is fundamental to everything we do in science, engineer and technology, and it is especially fundamental to space exploration, which we — maybe we will talk about it a little bit more. I wanted to ask you two, while we still have you on the stage; how did you come across this? Who gave this idea and how were you — how did you come across this idea of the Astro Pi and become motivated to do it? Well, it started with our teacher. She showed us the video of the Chris Hadfield video. Yes? When he was in the ISS, and then she explained to us what was the challenge, what was the objective, and that — like, we were going to do the language, Python and — Yes, yes. Yes. Yes? Our class was taking part in the Astro Pi challenge, so we just found a way to make it our own and unique. Well, thank you for doing it. Have you, by the way, coded before or is this your first try at it? It was my first time coding, using Python, but — Okay. Me, it is definitely not my first time. I made like up-side schemes, apps and — That’s amazing. And we (inaudible) robotics while visiting in Grade 3, and I was able to get third place on the international level. Holy, wow! Congratulations. Thank you. You have a bright future in coding, I think, if you continue to nurture that talent. Yes, a round of applause. Thank you, Veedoony and Yona, for sharing with us this morning. Thank you very much. Yes, that’s wonderful. Thanks so much. And I think everybody knows but it deserves reinforcement, this — because it is really neat – even for me – to think about the fact that all this code that is being generated by youth interested in coding now, because of the Astro Pi challenge, is actually being run on a little computer on the Space Station, which is just fundamentally awesome. It is a great thing. So, we are privileged and happy to be here, I would say, for myself. I am happy — any time I get to be in a room of people who are excited about science, technology and coding. And so I would say thank you for your interest and thank you for being here. I am just going to talk for a few quick minutes. Basically, we are filling. So, I think that you know what is going on this morning. We’re going to talk to my colleague, friend and Canadian Space Agency astronaut David Saint-Jacques by a downlink direct through Mission Control in Houston, and we are going to do that in a few minutes. I wanted to introduce you to some of the others who work with us down in Houston. I came in last night from Houston. I live and work at the Johnson Space Center training for space flight. I have been training for a year and a half and I’ve got a lot further to go. People train, as a matter of fact, for between — it can be as many as five years, for a specific mission. So, it is a very long road. Space flight is a very challenging and difficult thing still. In this picture you see me. You see other Canadian Space Agency astronauts, Jenni Sidey-Gibbons and Jeremy Hansen. We are doing some microgravity training, here. We are in an airplane they use as aggressive flight profiles, as it goes up and down, up and down, like a rollercoaster, to expose us to microgravity at different intervals, so that we can prepare and practice operating in that environment. It is a lot different. We also — I guess we’re going to look at a picture of the MBL. This is something where I spend a lot of time. I was in there this week. I will be in there next week. But what we are doing here is we are operating in a neutrally buoyant environment, so we’re operating under water, to stimulate space flight. We go into this pool. It is a giant — maybe the biggest pool in the world. It has a whole bunch of the Space Station inside it, and we run through technical procedures in there, perhaps for six or seven hours. So, I just want to throw some of that out there, in terms of what we do when we’re not up here talking to you people. Let’s go to this. I’m getting messaging — we’re going to — hopefully have David on the line, here, in about two minutes. But real quick, before we do — I was going to show you how David got to space. He has been there for about two months now. And this is what he launched on. So, this is a Soyuz rocket in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. I was fortunate enough to be there to see him off, and I tell you, it’s just a wonderful experience to actually see this rocket work. You get to be with David during the day. The three crew go out to that rocket. They climb to the top of it, they sit, just three little tiny humans on the end of this absolutely magnificent awe-inspiring piece of technology, and then everybody else leaves. And we walk over a mile away and then someone — one person with a very important job hits the go button and it lights. And I’ve seen lots of rocket launches on video, but when you see this in person it gives you a whole new appreciation for space flight and for still how difficult and I would say risky and dangerous, but vitally important human exploration of space is. We launched David. We saw him go off. We actually saw him at night, about 90 minutes later, as he came back over Baikonur in his Soyuz, and by that time he had already — he was close to approaching this — this. You would all recognize the International Space Station, it is maybe the most complex piece of technology ever built by human kind. I study it on a daily basis. I can testify to its complexity. It is a crown achievement of our species and it is just absolutely wonderful, the kind of work we’re doing on it. It is absolutely wonderful that as our small little country of Canada we are playing such an important role in it. So, that’s some (audio cut off) — where I live and work, and right away we’re going to get the phone link set up to the Space Station. Mission, this is Houston. Are you ready for the event? Houston, this is Station. I am ready. Canadian Space Agency, this is Mission Control Houston. Please call Station for a voice check. Good morning, Station. This is the Canadian Space Agency astronaut Joshua Kutryk, here in Vancouver. Hello, David! How do you hear us?Hey, Josh. I hear you loud and clear. I am ready to speak with you. Okay. So, we hear you loud and clear. It is wonderful to see you and to talk to you. I haven’t seen you in two months. I hear things are going well. I hope they’re going well. There are three of you on that giant station right now, how is the mission going and how are you enjoying all the extra space? Yes, it is a busy time, of course, because to take care of this big station, there’s only three of us, but that means that we can do things our own way, so there are some nice aspects to it. Of course, the views are incredible, and one day you will see those views too, Josh. Every time I swing by the cupola and I can look at the Earth, it just blows me away. Okay. Well, we are very fortunate to have you on the line. Thank you for taking the time, David. And I think we will head straight to the program. So, you know what we’re doing? We are launching the Astro Pi challenge, here, in Canada, the coding challenge for young people in different countries of the world, including ours. And I am here in Vancouver, at the Lord Selkirk Elementary School with a whole bunch of people who are absolutely fascinated and excited by the work that you’re doing on the Station right now, and I have a whole line of children with some questions to ask you. The first question I am going to ask on behalf of someone, it comes from Sam, who lives in Québec but isn’t here with us this morning. And his question to you, David, is: What is the thing that you miss the most about Earth? Well, it is the people that I love, that I had to leave behind, of course, that I miss. I think it is amazing here but, you know, every day I miss my family. I miss my friends. I know I will see them again and I will have nice stories for them, but I wish I could bring them here. Thank you for the answer. I thought I could do that with this microphone in my hand but I’m going to try that later. And we’re going to go to questions. So, here is your first question from one of our students here, David. I’m going to hand him — I will hold the mic for you; how about that? And just go nice and loud. Hello Captain, my name is Owen and I’m in Grade 5. My question is: do astronauts have to know how to code? Hello Owen. Yes, all astronauts know how to code a little, because most astronauts studied how to code when they were in school. And it’s useful because sometimes we need to code, but often we have to use computers, and when we know how to code, we understand how computers work, and that prevents us from making mistakes and it allows us to fix them. Therefore, everyone must know how to code. Thank you. Thank you very much. Thank you, David. We have our second question on the way, right here. Hello. I’m Reese, in Grade 7, and my question is: why is it important that children learn how to code? Important question, Reese. You know, computers are already everywhere in our lives, even in our telephones, now, and soon in our refrigerators. You—in your generation—everything will have a computer inside it, and it’s very important to really understand how it works, in order to be the master of all these machines. And also, coding requires analytical thinking and it also takes teamwork, for complicated machines like that. So, I think it’s important for young people to learn how to code and to learn how computers work, to be comfortable with them because they are part of your lives. Especially now, with the development of artificial intelligence, it will be more and more important in your lives, everything that is computerized. Thank you very much. The next question. Hello. My name is Christina and I am in Grade 7. I want to know how long it took for you to adapt to microgravity. Christina, it took a few weeks before being completely comfortable. In the beginning, my head was a bit swollen because the blood goes to your head. It’s like hanging from the ceiling, upside down. Me, here in space, it makes no difference, but when I arrived, it made a difference, and I was always congested. But now, I have adapted completely. I can be in all positions, it doesn’t bother me, and then I learned not to drop things. In the beginning, it’s easy if you—I take my mike, then I want to do something here, I can (inaudible ‒ breaks in the recording)—I run the risk of losing it because it’s going to fly away. So, we always have to tie things down. We always have to use them with Velcro or an elastic. We also get used to this. So, we get used to it physically, and then we get used to it mentally. Another problem is that we are always a little disoriented here because the sun rises 16 times a day and sets 16 times a day, so we don’t know what time it is spontaneously. It takes time before our internal clock gets used to it. Thank you very much. I will get closer. How does the research in space help prepare to send humans for a journey in tomorrows and beyond? The research we do here is mainly about how does our body adapt to living in space and living in microgravity and living in the environment of space. And that way, we can be ready to go further. Here, it is a bit as if we were camping in our backyard. We are not very far from Earth. We can see Earth very easily. But when we are ready, then we will go to a real mountain. So, in our case we’re going to Mars, when we’re ready to leave Earth, because when we go to Mars we will need to be going for several years. Right now we’re not ready to do that, because all the machines that are around us, that keep me alive, here, keep the air, keep the water, keep the (audio cut-off), so often they break and we need to fix them, and we need to have stuff that is very, very reliable. So, we do a lot of research on technology, to keep people alive, a lot of research on technology to cure diseases that can happen to us on orbit, that also helps us on Earth, and also, a lot of research on the energy we need to go to Mars. How does the International Space Station shrink and expand in space to accommodate temperature extremes? Very good question. Yes, as you know, the part of the Station that is in the sunshine gets very, very warm, and the part that is in the shadow gets very, very cold, and that changes all the time. So — But the engineers who designed the Space Station were very smart and they used special materials and combinations of material that — for which it doesn’t matter, these big changes in temperature, and thanks to that Station, it does not deform much. But it was a very important factor in the design of the Space Station. Thank you. What was your first job and why did you decide to become an astronaut later on? Me, I have had many jobs. I started as an engineer, like my father and my grandfather. After, I worked as an astronomer in a university and in its observatories. Then, I went back to university after that. I became a doctor. I worked as a family doctor in Canada’s far north, even Quebec’s, in a small Inuit village. And that’s where I was working when I heard that astronauts were being recruited, and I decided to try to become an astronaut, because it was an old childhood dream of mine. When I was a little boy, I would look at images of the Earth seen from space and I thought it was so beautiful. It always moved me and I was always convinced that this was what I should do in life: study, explore, be an explorer and understand the things around me as much as possible. What is the best and worst thing about being an astronaut? The best and worst thing? Well, the best thing about being an astronaut is that you’re in space, so you can float. You can do anything you want. You can fly. But the worst thing is that I cannot bring my family with me. I can’t bring my friends with me. I can show people photos. I can talk to you about it, but I cannot bring my friends here. So, that’s the worst thing. Hello David. This is Indra fom Kids Code Jeunesse. It’s great for us to work together with you, and I have a question for you. Why is it important for children to take part in a program such as Astro Pi? Actually, Astro Pi, it’s really perfect for learning about computers. In fact, I have one here, which is on board the International Space Station. It works and runs programs that were designed by children, like you, and it’s perfect for getting started. And we shouldn’t be afraid of computers, even if in the beginning, it can be intriguing. Because Kids Code Jeunesse will have loads of online advice and workshops in museums. Now, I have a challenge for you. Last year, in the first stage of Astro Pi, Canada ranked second in the world for the number of registrations. This year, I think we could try to rank first. Hi. My name is Joyce and I’m asking a question on behalf of Zeo, from Manitoba. If there is one thing you would like the bright young minds of today to know, what would it be? That’s a great question. What I would like every child to know is that the future — our future, is in your heads. You are our most valuable resource. You are our hope and our future. It is all in — our future is in the minds of young people. It is their ideas and what they want to do with their own lives and with the world we live in. Right now, maybe you feel very small, you don’t know much, you don’t know what to do, but trust me, you are the future, and the future is whatever you want it to be. What happens to something that is sucked into a black hole? Whoa—that’s scary, isn’t it? So, a black hole: when something is drawn into a black hole, it cannot escape and it disappears into the black hole, inside it. You get crushed, crushed, crushed till you reach a point where you can’t get out of the black hole. It’s—even light can’t get out of a black hole. This is why they are called black holes, because they don’t emit any light. So, if something disappears into a black hole, it’s gone, it disappears. What is the most difficult thing to do when you return to Earth, because of gravity? Ah! I think that my biggest challenge, first, the most important one is to learn how to walk again. It’s going to be difficult to walk because now I’m used to flying and moving around with my hands, mostly. Sometimes, I carry things with my feet, but I move around with my hands. Once on Earth, I’ll have to relearn how to walk without falling, without feeling sick when I turn my head. This will be what is most important for me. Then, after that, I’ll have to relearn how to use objects. I just can’t let them float around like this. I’ll have to set them down on a table, if I don’t want to use them. That’s what a lot of astronauts do when they return. They drop everything. So, I’ll try not to make too many mistakes. What does sunrise look like from the Space Station? It was very beautiful, in fact, because we are—imagine—in the dead of night. It is completely dark. We can see the Earth. We can perhaps see a few small lights from cities. And then, on the horizon, we start to see a blue line, the atmosphere’s blue line, it becomes increasingly brighter. And then, there is a red line that moves toward the centre, an orange line, yellow—and then: poof! The sun appears, but this is very, very fast. Just as if a light had just been turned on. It’s much faster than for sunrises and sunsets on Earth. Perhaps it can take one minute on Earth for the sun to rise from the horizon with beautiful orange colours. We go from complete nighttime, for two seconds, everything is orange, and after: pouf! It’s very bright. And what is the most bizarre is that even in broad daylight, with the sun out in the sky, the sky is black. How many different roles are there on board the International Space Station? Are all of them required to keep the Station running? Oh, yes. Well — so, the way the Space Station works; everybody is trained to do everything. So, we can all operate the equipment around us. We can all put the space suit on and do a spacewalk. We can all operate Canadarm to maybe catch a free-flying cargo vehicle or make a repair outside the Station. But there is always one commander, and so the commander has a special role. They are responsible to make decisions in case of an emergency. And there’s also the Soyuz — the spacecraft commander for the Soyuz capsule that brought us to the Space Station. That’s another role. So, all of these roles are very essential. But mostly, we have all trained for many years and we are interchangeable, and everybody can do pretty much everything. That’s what’s fun about being here. Have you witnessed any unexplainable or weird things in space? Well, often I lose things and I don’t know where they are. And I’ve looked for them and I’ve looked for them, and they always appear in the same place. They always appear in an inlet of the air circulation system. I know why, of course, because the air in the Station is always cleaned, so it’s in the air here (suction sound). There’s a little — it gets sucked into a cleaning system, and then pushed back in. So, anything that you lose always ends up after a few days stuck to one of those grids of the air intake, of the cleaning system. So, that’s always kind of surprising. If you lose something just wait two, three days, go see there; you will find it. Hi. I’m Lori, and I will be asking this question on behalf of Elizabeth, from Saskatchewan: How do you store food? Food, here, we store it dry. We don’t have refrigerators, so most of the food we have is dehydrated, like camping food. I don’t know if you have had that, perhaps. So, it’s completely dry; we remove all the water. And then we just add water to it and it becomes normal food again. We also have some food that is in cans, just normal cans, and then we — we open the can and eat it, like a normal can. So, that’s basically the food we have. It’s because we don’t have a fridge and it takes a long time for delivery, we can only have food that can be kept like that, on the shelf, for about a year. Every so often, when we’re lucky, maybe we get some fresh fruit or vegetables, when there’s a new spacecraft that comes, but that’s a very rare event, and then we will have a big special meal, with fresh food. Yes, so I think — do we have time for one more? One more question. It’s your lucky day. Hello. My name is Matthew and I am asking this question on behald of Olivier, from Quebec: How do you wash yourself and your clothes in space? Ah! To wash yourself here, obviously, well, it’s—yes, a very good question, isn’t it? So, we can’t take a shower, huh? Imagine what would happen if we took a shower or a bath; water would leak out. It would go everywhere into the machines. It would cause electrical problems. We cannot. So, we wash ourselves a little like we wash a baby. We put a little water on an arm, one arm at a time, after, water on the other arm. After, we wash one leg, the other leg, the face, the body. After that, we dry ourselves, one part at a time. So, we wash ourselves a little like we wash a very small child. And the clothes? Well, the clothes, in fact, the secret is that we wear them a very long time. We can’t wash them, so we wear them for a longer time that we do on Earth. But here, we really don’t seem to perspire, so it doesn’t seem to smell too bad. And then when they are — when it’s time to change them, well, we throw them out. We sometimes use them as material to pack cargo. OK. Thank you very much David. On behalf of everyone I think that’s all the time we have for the link, now, so we’re going to (inaudible) and say goodbye. On behalf of all the students here at Lord Selkirk, the staff and especially all the participants in the Astro Pi challenge, we thank you very, very much for taking time out of your busy schedule. I wish you all the success and a good mission for the rest of your remaining four or five months in orbit. It was a pleasure to talk to you. Thank you, everybody. Don’t forget to follow your dream and reach for the stars. Station, this is Houston ACI. That concludes the event. Thank you, Canadian Space Agency participants. Station, we are now resuming operational audio communication. OK. I think that just about ends it. If you’re curious about what that was, that’s the Mission Control Center in Houston, which is where I normally live and work, and they talk to this thing but it’s a lot more complicated than that, so you guys are really lucky that you were able to talk to this spaceship today. Just as closeout, here, if you ever think about it, this thing is going around Earth like every 90 minutes, and we need to maintain a direct link to it. We need to be able to see it. Of course, it is impossible to do from this school. So, there’s a lot that goes into a call like this. There’s actually a whole array of satellites that are being used, here. They are circling the Earth. And when we get it just right and we do all the setup and the technology that is right, we are able to pass the signal from David’s microphone through a whole constellation of satellites around the Earth, down to a place in central United-States called White sands, over to Houston, and then up to us here. So, just talking to the Station is a technically marvelous feat, and I’m super happy that it worked out today. I think that’s going bring the Q&A portion of this to an end. I would reiterate once more — I want to say thank you very much to everyone here who made this possible, the staff and the students at Lord Selkirk, Kids Code Jeunesse, especially, and as I said before, all the participants in the Astro Pi challenge. It is motivating for me to see your interest in coding and technology, and whatever your interests are. I just hope that you maintain the same level of interest and passion as you go forward in your lives. The future is very bright, and as David says: You are the future. So, thank you to everyone. If you would like to know more about what we do, if you would like to see more of David in space, or if you would like more information on Astro Pi, you can visit us. We are all over social media, Instagram, Twitter or the Canadian Space Agency website as well. Thank you very much, everyone. Thanks.

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