Hinduism 101: Religions in Global History

Hinduism 101: Religions in Global History


(NOT) HIP-HUGHES PRESENTS HINDUISM 101 (A WORLD HISTORY PRODUCTION) Hey guys welcome to (NOT) Hip Hughs (whatever his name is…). We’re doing world history edition. That’s right guys this time it’s a major world religion (why do we do this.) That’s Gonna be on the exam [you] need to know it and that’s hinduism a little bit about its history a little bit about its beliefs a little bit about the giddy up for the learning that we’re Gonna go get her done right now Okay, so [let’s] get started with very basics, and I mean the very basics like I’m literally taking a historical stone in future and Skipping it across the water of knowledge here We’ll say three things before we get started into really a set of principles number one It’s the oldest known practicing religion known to human beings hinduism goes back probably around [6,000] years to about 4000 BcE the Harappan Culture or the indus River Valley Civilization is where we think that the roots are going to be formed and [although] we haven’t interpreted their writing We know through archaeology that many of the customs and practices that they did way back then in a day We’re still doing today in India and amongst hindus we also know that around 1500 Bce don’t quote me exactly that people from the North known as Aryans came through the passes in the mountains they came from the steps which are North the caucus mountains Between the black sea and the Caspian Sea and they brought their [own] ways of knowing and knowledge and religious practices That kind of fused with the indigenous people that form the roots of Hinduism will also say that it’s the least dogmatic religion, there’s not one way of being in hindu in fact There’s no leader if someone comes down and says take me to the hindu leader. I don’t know where to take them It’s not like we have christ in Christianity or Buddha in buddhism, or mohammed in Islam. There is no one man in Hinduism so I got six beliefs on the table, and I’m going to serve them to you right now So I hope you’re [hungry] for a little bit of the learn Six [principals] guys the first one quite simple truth is eternal that truth is one there might be many different pathways to truth some hindus might take the pathway of Devotion or of knowledge or of duty, but they’re all seeking that one reality that one truth that Transcends even hinduism itself their second core belief. Is [that] there is one. [God]? They’re not really? Polytheistic we can kind of understand why some [people] might say that in a second? but they do believe that there is one world [sold] called Brahman and that out of that one world sold there’s Manifestations through other gods and Goddesses Brahma is the creator Vishnu is the protector and Shiva is the destroyer and there’s many other mother goddesses and goddesses that Individual hindus can decide to follow and to pray to but they all believe that all of those gods and goddesses are Extensions of this one world soul so while some people might say that hinduism is Polytheistic it really isn’t it might not also be monotheistic It’s probably another word for it you could put that down in the comments below another major kind of formation Principle is they all believe or follow the vedas now there are four books of knowledge that are called the vedas But [if] we go back thousands of years the vedas weren’t written down. They were memorized. They were hymns and prayers and rituals Around 400 500 Bce much of that began to be written down and that forms these stories and poems and hymns the foundational beliefs of hindus and how they practice their religion But some hindus follow some vedas more than other hindus follow other vedas so again. It’s not dogmatic There’s a lot of room for different beliefs and interpretations amongst the vedas themselves now here comes the first big vocabulary Word to sink your teeth in and that is dharma all Hindus believe that their job on Earth is to find their dharma [and] do it There’s not really one word that translates into Dharma But it’s really this belief that there is a way of living your life according to your path of truth authenticity honesty Virtue that that’s your dhArma which brings us into the next belief system. I’m going to come back to Dharma Which is that all souls are immortal [all] Souls are immortal hindus believe that we all have atman and then autumn on is our connection to the universe our Soul [the] God inside of us and this is connected in a way through the interconnectedness of the universe with Brahman the one world soul and Finding this connection through our dharma our path and knowing that our Karma There’s another vocabulary word our good deeds and our bad deeds Influence the path that we must follow all hindus believe in reincarnation. They believe that the atman which is lifeless and universal and forever Transcends the body this is called transmigration that when you die when your body becomes the carcass that it is and dies that the soul leaves the carcass and Transmigrates to another body that they believe in reincarnation and that their karma what they did on earth in that Body is going to affect. What dharma? They have the next life the way they need to to live that life and that their Karma Determines Who they’re going to be born as who their parents are going to be whether they’re going to be poor they’re going to be rich? So that actually connects to something called the caste system And now there’s modern hinduism where they don’t really believe in a strict caste system But the foundational principle of Hinduism was that you were born into the caste According to your karma and that your dhArma was dictated by the person that you were born into now if you look at the chart Right there, you could see the caste system [you] can see that is hierarchical than on top of the caste system on the tippy top point We have the brahmins the brahmins are the ones closest to the eternal truth They are the priests of hindu society we have the costea’s these are the warriors the Kings below them we have the merchants and the landowners these are the [veishea] and all of three of these groups were said to [be] the closest to completing their cycles of reincarnation [below] them we have the peasants the laborers these are the sudra and then we even have a group [that’s] outside of the caste system These are [the] untouchables the people that dealt with human waste or cleaning toilet bowls people that were seen as Not being part of the caste system at all now we can see in a representation of their God Brahman that there’s a connection between the different parts of their god and the castes that you were born into Now the next part of hinduism that is important to understand is Moksha the search for this eternal truth following your dhArma will eventually liberate your soul from this constant cycle of reincarnation And it was thought that if you followed your path of [duty] your path of knowledge your path of devotion that eventually you could reach Moksha and your soul would be free from the misery the pain that is known on human Earth That’s the whole idea [of] hinduism is follow your dharma Which is dictated [by] your [karma]? So you can achieve Moksha and free your soul from Earth to be connected with the one with the eternal now certainly Hinduism is practiced in many different forms much of it sometimes as a family tradition Other times hindus seek out their own personal path And there’s lots of different [ways] to practice that now of course there’s other commonalities in Hinduism self they believe that the rivers of the ganges are sacred they cleanse their souls by bathing in it They’re all supposed to make a pilgrimage to the ganges eventually in their lifetime. There’s also a Tradition [of] fire altars of burning offerings of having temples in your own home There’s also a belief in sages that there are people that were born with this eternal truth And it’s their job to teach other hindus about this eternal truth But that’s probably the basics enough for you if you understand Reincarnation if you understand Moksha if you understand Dharma and Karma you’ve probably got enough to pass the test How about that? I’m not sure about the test of life, but enough passed and test alright guys We’ll see you [guys] next time that you press my buttons [I] Want to give a quick shout out to my hip hughes heroes who have made humongous donations, online quinn? Dr.. Chu Mei [Yang] and if you haven’t checked it out teachers check out students of history org, Mr. Luke Rosa a seasoned professional social studies teacher has put together all the resources that he’s used to make his classroom Student-centered engaging and diverse and you can go check that out online right [now] and see if that’s for you that’s students of history Org, but again all of my hip use heroes you truly are my heroes. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you you

100 Replies to “Hinduism 101: Religions in Global History”

  1. I'd just like to say that along with the knowledge you have a really great stage presence that easily keeps me not just listening but paying full attention. Great job👍

  2. So if I supposedly am a Hindu, how do I know where is my place in this caste system? How do I know if I was the priest or the cleaner, and if I was the latter how can I change to a better human?

  3. This was beautifully explained, but just one note- Brahman translates to earth in hindi/sanskrit, and the one soul is just 'Brahma'

  4. Uh Hindu is not the proper term for those who follow Vedic Dharma. Aryans dominated the globe with Vedas as the source of all knowledge for at LEAST millions of years. Buddha is an incarnation of Vishnu sent to deal with atheists and animal killers. Brahma came from Krishna who expands as Maha-Vishnu. Krishna is also the source of the impersonal BraHman. Brahma is the source of all? lol no. even he says he prays to Krishna. I'm not goona critique the whole rest of the video. I will say:

    Most people don’t have a full/accurate understanding of any religion. Example: although the Vedas were written over 5,000 years ago & known well before that, all major religions/major sciences stemmed from Vedas. Buddha, Christ were 1st mentioned there, as was all math, oldest histories, other planets, Relativity, etc. It also gave the socio-economic system that dominated/thrived all over (spiritually centered merit based system) BEFORE it was corrupted into a birth-based caste system. ALL life was respected with compassion (killing animals were allowed in rare, unavoidable situations, especially with minimal suffering to the animal). Vedic teachings share the same core teachings as the Bible (like having 1 supreme personal God) but because Vedas are so detailed & allow variations for people who are less good/truthful, it ALSO mentions God with his impersonal energy aspect (Brahman) and many “Gods” (AKA angels) and people misunderstand.

    Vedic shape/age of Earth is confirmed by modern science, but they have their own more detailed/advanced/accurate model of creation/evolution. If you need details/sources, watch this (you can skip the 1st/last video there) & if you don’t wana pay for the book in the link, message me for the free PDF…. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL37644B85810E3F6A

  5. Proud American Hindu convert from Christianity here. I have fallen in love with the Goddess Durga and the Devi Mayhatmya and Devi Gita.

  6. Actually recent genetic studies show that the oppressive or social enforced caste system did not exist in Hinduism till the 12th century AD.. The ancestors of people who are now in different castes were freely intermarying even upuntil the 12 century AD.. and the caste system as it came to be practised in India during the last 500-800 years has no basis in the Vedas… Vedas mentions the caste but it does not say people are born into their caste.. It just says people can be divided into 5 categories, it does not say if you parents belong to X category you will also automatically belong to that category..

  7. Human life is a result of good karma
    Animal life is a result of bad karma done by soul in last life
    Life as a Animal or trees or insects is a way of redeeming your bad karma

    Every soul is a part of god
    When it achieves its moksha it gets merged with god and get relief from cycle of birth and death called life
    Ramayan and mahabharat are epic
    Exa.ples given to mankind how to live life and what not to do in life

  8. in islam we don't prey to muhhammad (as) we prey to allah. muhhamad (as) is allah's prophet like jesus, moses (as) etc.

  9. Hindus generally dont confine brahman (god) to 1, 10, 20…etc… we dont generally say 1 god but just god & believe everything originates from the same 'god' or brahman…& yes god is omnipresent…god (divinity) exists in everything …thats y we respect all creations and dont kill each other in the name of god…every life is sacred, every life holds divinity.

  10. @0:17 you better not bring in Aryan Dravidian propaganda or else I will Stop watching the video and block the recommendation of this video and select the option "I am not Interested in this channel" @1:41 bye bye and good luck propagating British propaganda. I am not going to contribute any more watch time to this channel

  11. What a whole bunch of BS ! The caste system is not associated with Hinduism. All bunch of nonsense was spread by British and its still being propagated by various westerners. Also, there is no such thing as Aryan Invasion. There is nothing in the religion that says its ones responsibility to teach others – thats a western concept!
    Just stop spreading nonsense!

  12. Being old in time doesn't mean that it is the true religion. Each human is created in the image of God, so they have a nature of seeking God. Even without revelation, they would try to seek the meaning of life by their own dreams, the "sixth sense", creating their own myths and so on. But the only true God is the God who started revealing Himself to the Jews from the beginning, then to all nations. Because Jesus Christ really came to us in flesh, factually, certainly and solidly in history. And Jesus also proved it with His Life. The Passion and the Resurrection.

  13. Pretty cool! we are in Malaysia and there is a lot of people practicing Hinduism here. Its great to know a bit more about their religion. Thanks for sharing.

  14. The caste system was (karma jatt) which means what is your capacity that is your caste or in simple way (if you are strong and have leadership you can be warrior or if you are intelligent you can be Brahman) . But some people corrupted it to (janam jatt) which means birth caste or if you are born in a (carpenter, goldsmith, potteretc) then thats your caste

  15. The caste system you mentioned is from the manusmrti which fucked up the real caste system which is mentioned in the vedas. According to the caste system in the vedas there are only 4 type which you mentioned. Brahmin Kshatriya vaishya and shurdas. This system wad based on one's plus points or his capabilities. If you're born to a shudra you can be brahmin if you're capable of becoming one. This was allowed. It's even mentioned in the bagavad gita. Sorry about my english but I tried my best to explain 😅

  16. Aryan Invasion Theory has been proven as a myth based on genetics, archaeology and other facts for several decades now.

  17. Karma: Every action has equal an opposite(the direction) reaction.
    Moksha: Freedom from the pain known as life.
    Brahma: I am you and you are me and we are the manifestations of the supreme soul(God) in the dimensions of space and time.

  18. He is pronouncing Hindi words completely wrong like dharma brahamand moksha ganga kashtirya (with k silent) 😆 should have consulted a Hindu

  19. There was never a caste system, it was a verna (class) system, where a group of people were classified in one of the four groups based on the work they did, it wasn't hierarchial. But unfortunately some people for their selfish reasons converted this into an hierarchial system.

  20. The caste system was and is practiced
    But it is not officially present anywhere to sideline or downgrade people
    It was and is misused largely since ages
    Its the story of Powerful oppress the weak to rule.
    The dharma karma and moksha is what actual hinduism or for that Matter sanata dharma is.

  21. I liked this video with just the introduction alone! Great way to catch the attention of the audience and keeping the material lively.

  22. ISLAM, HINDUISM OR ANY OTHER FAULTS RELIGION LEADS YOU INTO YOUR OWN DESTRUCTION, THROUGH SATAN'S DECEPTIONS! AND THOSE WHO SPREAD IT WILL BE
    ACCOUNTABLE TO GOD!!! IT IS NO SMALL THING TO GO AGAINST THE LAMB OF GOD, JESUS CHRIST, THAT WAS SLAIN FOR THE SINS OF THE WORLD!!!
    YES, MAN HAS BEEN LED AND INFLUENCED BY SATAN FOR EONS, BUT IN THE BEGINNING, GOD REVELED HIMSELF TO ADAM AND EVE, BUT WHEN THE DEVIL DECEIVED THEM, IT GAVE HIM ACCESS TO DECEIVE HUMANITY WITH EVERY SORT OF FAULTS RELIGIONS KNOW TO MAN! GOD IS NOT ABOUT RELIGION, BUT RATHER A RELATIONSHIP WITH US INDIVIDUALLY OR COLLECTIVELY, AS A CONGREGATION. AS JESUS SAID IN JOHN 14:6 – JESUS SAITH UNTO HIM, I AM THE WAY, THE TRUTH, AND THE LIFE: NO MAN COMETH UNTO THE FATHER, BUT BY ME. AND SAID, YE SHALL KNOW THE TRUTH, AND THE TRUTH SHALL MAKE YOU FREE. JOHN 8:32. EVERYTHING OUT SIDE OF JESUS CHRIST WILL LEAD TO YOUR OWN DESTRUCTION BY YOU BELIEVING THE LIE WHERE THE TRUTH OF GOD'S WORD LEADS TO ETERNAL LIFE!!!

  23. God loves sinners, but hates the sin in us, and God offers salvation from hell for free to those who believe in Jesus Christ.

    Sin is pre-existing in all. Sin pre-dates The Bible. The Bible explains origins of sin. The Bible provides remedy for sin through Jesus Christ.

    Sinners cannot save themselves from sin. Holy God intervened to remove sin.

    Sin is the opium.

    If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us.

    All have sinned, and fall short of glory of God. For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

    Jesus Christ came from heaven (first Christmas), died on The Cross (first Good Friday) and resurrected (on The Third Day – also linked to Easter) to save from "pre-existing sin" for all who believe. For free.

    Unable to find any motive for Jesus Christ to die on The Cross, and resurrect – except His love to save all from "pre-existing sin".

    Salvation from "pre-existing sin" and hell is free, but not cheap, as Jesus Christ paid the penalty of sins of all on The Cross by shedding His precious blood.

    Salvation is not 'earned' by following law or jurisprudence or rituals or customs or traditions or ceremonies or public displays.

    Religion says "Do". Jesus Christ says "Done".

    We don't have to do sacrifices for salvation from sin and hell. Jesus Christ sacrificed His life on The Cross and resurrected, for everyone's salvation.

    Nothing disqualifies anyone from love of God.

    It is a lie to say that we are not loved. God loves us unconditionally. He died willingly on The Cross.

    The God who died for us, is for us, not against us.

    Jesus Christ forgave who crucified Him, and even today forgives who ridicule Him.

    Heaven is holy. Sin cannot enter heaven. Jesus Christ provided way for us to become holy to enter heaven. Jesus Christ lived a holy life, while on earth.

    Jesus Christ is the Way, the Truth and the Life. He has authority to forgive sins.

    Innocence, joy like what children have, is what Heaven is.

    Hell is where sin is quarantined.

    Freedom in "sin" is not freedom. Freedom from "sin" is the real freedom.

    Following God's morals have health, psychological and economic benefits, to families and nations. Provides equilibrium.

    Finding God helps find meaning, purpose, hope, eternity, value, dignity, equality, God-given talents, family values, health, rest, peace, joy. Prevents suicides.

    There is more to life.

    Humanity began good and we are good. And sin plays spoilsport.

    GRACE: Getting what we don't deserve (forgiveness of sins, eternity in heaven through Jesus Christ)

    MERCY: Not getting what we deserve (punishment for sins, separation from God, eternity in hell. Because Jesus Christ paid penalty of sins on The Cross)

    Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.

    The problem of "pre-existing sin" is addressed by Jesus Christ on The Cross. Ignoring "pre-existing sin" is cowardly moral escapism.

    Everyone has "Soul" which has eternal value. Body, Life and Soul – only Soul is eternal. After death eternity in hell; or eternity in Heaven through Jesus Christ.

    Unloose the Soul from the tight knot of sin.

    What we do to Body and Life is temporal. What we do with Body and Life, to Soul, is eternal. Soul outlasts death.

    The end of the world prophecies to fulfill: The Gospel (the Good News of Jesus Christ) will be preached to all; The persecution of God's children; The advent of anti-christ the one man ruler of world; The Second Coming of Jesus Christ.

    Jerusalem is epicenter of Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Watch it.

    As it was in the days of Noah, so it will be at the coming of the Son of Man. Rainbow appeared to Noah; rainbows appearing now. Prophecies fulfilment.

    Have choice to choose to avoid hell. Other side of choice is freedom.

    God does not enforce, gave free choice to chose.

    One can live without Jesus Christ with talents He gave. But one should not leave the earth without Jesus Christ.

    Jesus Christ provides comfort even on death-bed.

    Death is scary thing, but eternal damnation is scarier.

    Death is not extinction, but accountability.

    Believe, repent and accept Jesus Christ, and be saved. Simple. Nothing to lose, everything to gain.

    Jesus Christ is coming again, and doors will be closed. He is coming to judge everyone; and to provide answers to every mystery. He is The Alpha and The Omega.

  24. Imagine? 6000 BCE. Thanks for sharing this with me , by the way I'm Buddhist from Philippines and I'm open minded specialy Hinduism

  25. Cast system is explained incorrectly. You are born a Hindu, you are grouped into the castes based on your skill and knowledge.

  26. Hinduism is not a religion. Every life born between Himalayas and Indu Sagar (now Indian Ocean) is a Hindu (Hi+Indu). It's a way of living life, knowing about yourself, making a good living for yourselves and for all the creatures and nature around you. Not just following some book or rules. You are free as a Hindu!!!

  27. Lord Jesus Christ is our Savior not religion. Catholic, muslim, buddhism, hinduism etc. they are all false! it’s satan’s deception because satan is the father of all lies! Holy Bible is the TRUTH alone🙏 Repent,believe in the Gospel

  28. No such thing as caste (a western word). The original term (sanskrit word) is varna a position based on character and skills, not related to birth. Aryan invasion teory has been disproved scientifically.

  29. I am a hindu and i know that its not nessesary to a brahman alaways become a priest a brahman means who's perfect in every thing. In vedic era a brahman mean most educated and skilled one who petfect in everything not only retuals but he who knows everything , but sadly in this age a brahman mean the socity of priests .

  30. The caste system you explained is wrong it is fake ,we have varna system we dont have caste system varna system means occupation discription like if you are a teacher,priest,doctor then you are a brahmin, if you are a merchent then you are vaishya,if you are a labourer then you are shudra, and every one can become a priest by there knowledge. Caste system (jati pratha) was put by some evil people about 1000 years ago

  31. This is one of the religions who doesn't have proof and evidence to be called true religion ..People just have faith in Hinduism because their parents used to have this faith and this chain goes on …God is One only one and Islam is not a new religion and Muhammad ( May Allah peace be upon him) is not the founder of Islam but Islam is started when the first man, the creation of God (Allah Subhanawatallah) step on this planet earth, Islam is the selected religion of Allah the God one with 100% proofs, evidence and logics …

  32. THIS BASTARD IS A SELL OUT TO MUSLIM….
    WHAT THE FUCK ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT WHILE SAYING THERE IS 30MILLION GODS IN HINDUISM?
    SURYASHASTRA ALONE IS 12000 YRS OLD,DWARKA REMAINS ARE 10000-30000YRS OLD,FROM WHERE HE IS GETTING THIS 2500YRS AND 4000YRS OLD DATE?
    I AM WATCHING THIS BASTARD FOR QUITE SOME TIME NOW AND SEEING HIS OBVIOUS BIAS TOWARDS PATHETIC CULT CALLED ISLAM..
    TELL ME HOW MANY TERRORIST ORGANISATION ISLAM HAS UNDER ITS NAME..
    AND HOW MANY BLAST ISLAM FOLLOWER HAD COMMITED COMPARED TO OTHER RELIGIONS…
    UNSUBSCRIBE THIS BASTARD CHANNEL

  33. In this modern 21st Century, Hinduism never believes in the rigid caste system. Ever is equal before God.

    Who is God in Hinduism?

    There are multiple intreptation by various Great Hindu Saints Scholars regarding the God and his attributes

    Before that there is 6 philosophical school in Hinduism which speaks and say how can a soul reach God

    1)Samakya (By right Knowledge , Intreptataion)
    2)Yogacharya (By performing Yoga and detaching body and soul from the worldly desires)
    3)Nyaya – Right Knowledge about God
    4)Vaisheshika – Atomic character- 1st book to recognise World is made of Atoms and molecules. And these are created by God
    5)Mimasa – Which believe in Rituals mentioned in Yajur veda
    6)Vedanga – Very important philosophy which intrecepted whole vedas

    There are 18 puranas.
    2 great Epics

    Vedangas were intercepted by various reverted Hindu Saints and Scholar.

    It has to be note that , none of them approved rigid caste system and they want even people from low caste to reach the God (Paramapatham, Sivapaatham)

    Prominent Saints and Scholars

    Swami Sankaracharya – Monism – Advita philosophy . He said if human soul get identical with Paramathama , God can be seen.

    Swami Ramanuja – Qualified Monism – Visita Advita
    Famous scholar – who defied caste system 1100 years ago. Vehement Sri Vishnu devote.

    Swami Madvacharya – Dvaitha – Dualism concept.

    Apart from them few famous Saints Scholors

    Music Trinity ( worshipped God as Music)
    Swami Ragavendra – Attained Jeevasamathi – Worshipped Lord Sri Ram
    Swami Babaji – who advocated Kriya yoga to attain salvation
    Kabir das – Talked Hindu Muslim unity during Lodi time. It said that once Shinkandar Lodi itself paid respect to him
    Always and Nayanmars of South India. Bhakti saints who seemed God as Lover, Friend , Brother and Sister.
    Thukaram – Maharastra Pandaripur saint. Most famous saint of India
    Eknath
    Jnaneshwar
    Mirabhai

    In Assam Chaitnya Mahaprabu

    Recently Shiridi Sai Baba

    Guru Prabula path

    Swami Ramakrishna, Matha sharadha devi ,

    His disciple Swami Vivekandha
    Etc etc

    Hinduism is home to peace , tolerance, Hrmony , Dharma, true knowledge, right conduct ,seeing God even in other religion let it be Jainism or Buddhism.

    Ultimately to say , Following Bhagavt Gita or morals, ethics of Ramayana is the lifestyle of true Hindus.

    I thank Lord for giving this great birth in great family and to chance follow him by the way of Bhakthi tradition on every single day and every single second.

  34. If you are Hindu and reading this, get out asap! I've believed in Jesus and have met His Spirit and He is very real. You can taste His righteousness, holiness, etc. He's more real than you or me.
    Pray that Jesus would open your eyes. Pray for a vision, anything. He will answer.

  35. Great explanation in less than 10 mins. I think the worst travesty that's happened in Hindu society throughout most of its history is the caste system. Or at least how it's been interpreted which is different from the actual vedic texts (don't quote mean this though)

  36. In Hindusim, it is welcome if you follow Hinduism.
    and it is accepted if you don't wish to follow Hindusim.
    🙏 Democracy in religion #freedom

  37. The word hind or Hindu Is an Arabic word started using by the Muslim rulers to name the people living near River sindu. Hindu is not at all a religion before the Muslim rulers ruling India.

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