FIGHT CLUB [Film Analysis with Maggie Mae Fish]

FIGHT CLUB [Film Analysis with Maggie Mae Fish]


I wanna tell you a story about a really cool
friend I have. This person dresses really slick, always says the right thing, dates
the hottest people. My friend can win in any fight. And guess what: that person is MEEEEEEEE. That’s basically the argument of Fight Club.
One guy telling us about how cool someone is, then revealing that “actually” that
guy is me. How come when we watch a movie that makes that argument, it’s compelling,
but if someone did that to you in person, you’d think they’re a garbage person?
Maybe if we look a little closer at Fight Club, we can figure it out. The standard reading of Fight Club is that
Jack is schizophrenic; that he invents Tyler as an alternate personality out of either
boredom or a sense of inferiority, and then the Tyler personality takes over Jack’s
mind for a while, does a bunch of terrorist stuff, but eventually Jack saves the day.
Even though society seems like it’s about to crumble, the bad man is sent away. Happy
ending, right? But I would like to propose a different reading: that this is a story
told by Tyler from the very beginning. “This is it. The beginning.” That the personality
of “Jack” never existed within the fictional world. Tyler is real. Jack is just a character
invented by Tyler to manipulate us, the audience. Talking about a fictional character within
a fictional story can be a bit confusing, so… we need to go over some concepts first. I’ve always felt like I’m not alone when
I watch a movie, or TV, or a YouTube video. The person on screen is talking to me, even
though I know they’re just pixels flashing on a monitor and vibrations emanating from
speakers. I know that they’re not really here. That all these characters and places
are absent, but I know that these images and sounds represent people places and emotions.
I feel–no, I don’t just feel, I KNOW that they are present. This is known as “absence/presence.” Some movies are so clever, they’ll even
draw attention to their own absence/presence: “We have front row seats at this theater
of mass destruction.” That “we” is Jack and Tyler, but we is also us, the audience.
The disembodied voice-over acknowledges that we’re aware we are about to watch a show.
Then “we” impossibly float through walls in a complicated VFX shot. All these things
are absent, but at the same time we feel they are present. As you can find in a basic film studies textbook:
”The spectator knows very well that what he is watching is a fiction, but all the same
he maintains the belief, indeed his pleasure is dependent on the belief, that it is not.
Cinema is thus founded on a regime of spectating at once knowing one thing and believing its
opposite, which, as we have seen, is precisely the structure of disavowal.” The process of disavowal has been described
by the formula: ‘I know, but all the same.’ We KNOW that the movie we are watching is
not real. BUT in order to enjoy a movie, we must *believe* on some level that it is real. By starting with “I know,” we seem to
acknowledge something or someone’s point of view, then by adding the “but” we disavow
what we just claimed to know as true. Not every “I know, but” statement is disavowal.
And not every statement of disavowal requires “I know, but.” When a politician says
“let’s not make this political,” they are disavowing the fact that everything is
inherently political. Dishonest people love disavowal because it makes them seem rational. It’s already weird that we’re able to
follow the average film, following characters from scene to scene, across time and space.
In Fight Club, Tyler and Jack are a weird, extremely literal manifestation of absence/presence
and disavowal. By the end of the movie, Tyler is popping in and out of existence even within
a single shot, the way characters pop in and out of existence when we change from one scene
to another in any movie. By pushing absence/presence and disavowal
into the foreground, Fincher keeps our minds so busy, we forget exactly what it is we’re
even disavowing. Hint: it’s terrorism. “And let me pause to say, film theory and psycho-analytic
concepts like these are not inherently good or inherently bad. Personally, I’m glad
I can enjoy a movie through disavowal. Even a fictional narrative can reveal deeper truths
about the human condition. What we need to ask is: what are the effects of a particular
film’s use of these concepts? And, are the implications of the narrative true? So, with
that in mind… There’s one more term we need to cover.
Fetishism in pop culture is usually understood as someone getting overly horny at the sight
of an object, like a pair of sexy red shoes. Cultural theorist Thomas Ying-ling wrote that
it’s more useful to think of fetishism “as it has been defined in psychoanalysis not
as the overvaluation of some part-object but as the denial of lack.” For example, the
American flag is a fetish object, often used to deny a lack of freedom. How can you say
I’m not free when I’ve got this piece of dyed cloth that stands in for freedom?
By continually filling his life with Swedish furniture, Jack fills his life with fetish
objects that comfort him. Collecting all these objects distract from what is lacking in his
life. Clearly he’s lacking something. “Please just give me something.” If only Jack had
a friend who would tell him what’s lacking in his life. Just as Jack fetishizes his furniture, audiences
participate in fetism while watching movies. Film theorist Christian Metz wrote on the
subject in the 1970s: “Fetishism occurs on screen within the image, as in the case
of the fetishizing of the body of the femme fatale in film noir. But, says Metz, fetishism
operates also at a far more basic level. The image as image and the cinematic apparatus
as apparatus are both fetish, because they stand in for, make present, what is absent.
As such, they disavow what is lacking.” Just as Jack fetishizes furniture to deny
the lack in his own life, we fetishize the cinematic image to deny the lack of reality
represented by that image. I know Spiderman is a fictional character, but when I see him
die, I feel like a real person has died. If only we had a movie to tell us what we’re
lacking in our lives. Fight Club is a story told by an unreliable
narrator, whose goal is to explain away his own guilt and justify the position he’s
established as the leader of a terrorist organization; an organization he knowingly and willingly
created because he wants the rest of the world to be as miserable as he is. The narrative is told by, and controlled by,
Tyler. Jack isn’t Tyler’s alter ego, or imaginary friend. In Jack, Tyler has created
the perfect candidate for Project Mayhem, confident that we will see ourselves in Jack.
That we’ll identify with Jack’s insecurities, doubts about society, and fear of self examination.
In a 1999 interview, Fincher spoke to Tyler’s embodiment of disavowal: “[Y]ou have to
have a guy that’s going, ‘Well, I can see your point, but it seems to me… You
can look at losing all of your stuff both ways. Yeah, it’s all of your stuff; yeah,
it took you years to collect; yes, they were all tasteful, interesting choices. But there’s
another side to it.’” Tyler anticipates our moral reservations, lays them out in very
childish terms, then goes “but!” and gives Jack a pre-packaged, simplistic counter-argument.
“I say, let’s evolve. Let the chips fall where they may.” Okay, whatever that means.
Tyler needs to invent the character of Jack, to give us a friendly, gullible fetish object
to identify with. Jack is the image we can attach ourselves to, so that we can tell ourselves
we–just like Jack–were innocent all along. We are free to enjoy the violence, even up
to and including terrorist acts, because in the end we see Jack’s image, standing there,
victorious. The image of Jack remains, although he now admits that he’s Tyler. Jack’s
image is present, but Jack is absent. Tyler’s image is absent, but Tyler is present. By
ending on Jack’s image, we deny the lack of morality in what Tyler has done. “Everything’s
gonna be fine.” We can deny that this kind of power fantasy is appealing, to “guys
like us,” because the good guy–or at least the image of the good guy–is the one left
standing in the end. Also, that’s not how schizophrenia works. Fight Club is a movie that’s clearly designed
to be watched multiple times, but with each viewing, we disavow more and more. The first
viewing is exciting. We the audience experience revelation after revelation along with Jack,
up until we learn that “Tyler is Jack.” Usually when we watch a movie for a second
time, we’re able to break down a story’s structure a little better, and recognize key
themes more clearly. We start to see the strings. It’s why the Sixth Sense is kind of boring
on the second viewing, because now you’re just paying attention to how M Night Shyamalan
“pulled it off.” But that’s not the experience of watching Fight Club for a second
time. As viewers, solving a mystery is both entertaining and comforting. We want to understand
what really happened in this fictional universe, and Tyler lays out a pretty fun, sardonic,
flashy answer to the mystery of ‘who is Tyler Durden?’ Once we feel like we have that
answer–even though it’s just ‘Tyler’s version of what happened in this fictional
narrative–we get to sit back on the second viewing and just enjoy the ride. However,
repeat viewings do not give us a deeper understanding of Marla’s perspective, even though she
would have a pretty insightful view of Tyler. A view that we should want if we truly wanted
to understand him more accurately, or understand the deeper implications of the story. But
we don’t. Instead, Tyler frames her emotions as the butt of a mean joke, while seeing his
emotions as valid. On a repeat viewing, instead of breaking down the movie, we’re sucked
deeper into Tyler’s narrative, deeper into his perspective. We’re not just seeing puzzle
pieces fit together in the order that Tyler has preordained. We’re FEELING how he wants
us to feel about every character. Rewatching scenes with Marla, which should
make us empathize with her since we now know that Tyler is treating her like garbage, instead
make her the object of ridicule. Fincher’s choice of angles, tone, and pacing still privilege
Tyler’s point of view. Look how often Marla is framed with the camera
looking down on her. And how often Tyler is framed looking down on us. We are rewatching
the exact same scene was saw on first viewing, telling ourselves that we’re watching something
different this time, since we have new knowledge. But the same argument as before–that Marla
is a trash human and sucks and Tyler hates her, and we should hate her too–is only reinforced
on this viewing. Jack’s inflection seems clueless. “What
are you getting out of all of this?” On first viewing, that inflection was understood
to be Jack’s honest confusion about why Marla is hanging around with Tyler. On second
viewing, there’s a surface level reading, if we take Tyler’s narrative at his word,
that Jack is schizophrenic and is truly confused. But that’s not what’s going on. Because
Jack is not there. Jack is absent. That’s Tyler talking. Tyler is present. Tyler is
telling us this story. By acting ‘confused’ Tyler keeps us from empathizing with Marla
in this situation and instead we empathize with Jack, because we’ve seen this scene
before and were just as confused as he is. It’s relatable! It keeps us from acknowledging
that in the actual world of the story, it’s Marla who is infinitely more confused because
she’s dealing with this irrational obnoxious person. “Talk to me!” Tyler knows exactly
how much of his asshole persona he can reveal without losing his intended audience. And
this movie has an intended audience. This movie is not meant for everyone. This movie
is meant for “guys like you and me.” It’s for nice guys who know they should be getting
more out of life. “I used to be such a nice guy.” Except Jack was never a nice guy,
because he never existed. The mythical nice guy is simply a convenient
tool in Tyler’s rhetorical utility belt. This movie is for guys who were never nice,
but want to claim: “It’s the world’s fault I’m not nice anymore.” Guys who
want a fabricated excuse for their toxic, abusive behavior. On the fourth viewing, Marla is still gross.
On the sixth viewing Jack still provides excuses for Tyler’s actions. On the eighth viewing
we still disavow that Brad Pitt is a Hollywood sex symbol, so we can pretend he’s just
a regular guy like us. Because no matter how many times you watch
it, Tyler is still in control of the story. At best the narrative constructs him as a
Messiah, at worst he’s misguided but still “right” about society *wink.* Tyler narrates
scenes that literally did not happen, so that we don’t even have a chance to question
Tyler’s lies. Tyler has to show us the provocative fight first. After all, seeing someone assaulting
themselves, or pretend to be assaulted in public, would make them seem ridiculous. This
is provocative. But from a more objective angle, we see it’s simply a dork pretending
to get beat up. By the time Tyler shows us this he’s preached so much about how terrible,
absurd, and messed up society is, we’re primed to see this kind of behavior as justified,
or even noble. If society is absurd, the means of rebelling
might as well be equally absurd. This is why, even on a repeat viewing, when we know that
Tyler is punching himself in this scene, we don’t think “That’s a sad guy punching
himself.” We still think: “This is cool and funny and different. This is the origin
story of the cool secret club I know about.” We disavow critical thought, in favor of being
part of the in group. “Losing all hope was freedom.” Tyler talks a lot about freedom, about being
free. But the kind of freedom Tyler is talking about isn’t found in Enlightenment philosophy
or the Declaration of Independence or even in ads for oversized American pickup trucks.
Journalist I. A. R. Wylie interviewed a young man who could have been a real life candidate
for Project Mayhem when he said: “We are free from freedom.” Wylie elaborates: “He
meant that he no longer had to make his own decisions or even think his own thoughts.”
Wylie was interviewing a young Nazi who made that proud statement shortly before World
War Two. Eric Hoffer, in The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements,
explains that this kind of freedom “is not freedom of self-expression and self-realization,
but freedom from the terrible burden of an autonomous existence. They want freedom from
‘the fearful burden of free choice.’” “It’s only after we’ve lost everything
that we’re free to do anything. The idea of free will, of free choice, is antithetical
to Tyler’s worldview. “Freedom” means having a gun placed at the back of your head
and being told what to do. And, conveniently for Tyler, he sets up a system which strips
everyone else of choice, leaving Tyler with the ability to choose for them. You are free to punch, you are free to blow
things up, but you’re not free to do just anything. To Tyler, these violent, physical
categories of knowledge are good. But there are categories of knowledge which he finds
distasteful, which he wants to eliminate. Tyler: “Why do you guys like you and I know
what a duvet is?” Simply knowing what the word duvet means is immoral to Tyler. “Guys
like you and me” should not be allowed to know what a duvet is. We are men. We are hard.
Duvets are prohibited for “guys like you and me.” Why does Jack feel so empty? Why does Jack
feel so lost? Does he feel crushed by the superficiality and alienation inherent in
capitalism? Does he have a terminal illness? Is it because the word duvet exists? It’s
because Jack isn’t real. He’s a straw man whose mortal enemy is a fancy word for
blanket. Let’s take a close look at one of the characters
Tyler indoctrinates. A character whose life Tyler believes Tyler changes for the better.
“What are we doing?” “Human sacrifice.” In the only scene where we actually see Tyler
intimately engage with one of his converts, Tyler drags this stranger, Raymond, outside
while he’s working, and puts a gun to the back of Raymond’s head. Then, based solely
on the fact that Raymond has an expired community college ID in his wallet, Tyler assumes a
heck of a lot about Raymond’s hopes and dreams, gets him to admit under duress that
he gave up on his goal of being a veterinarian, then threatens that if Raymond doesn’t go
back to school, Tyler will find Raymond and murder him. Very inspiring stuff. We know that Tyler just wants to push this
guy to be his best self. We know that Tyler is trying to motivate men to be men. To take
charge of their lives. We know this, because Tyler knows this. Raymond does not know this. We do not know
Raymond’s perspective. We do not establish his mundane job. We do not see him standing
behind the counter as Tyler rushes in like an ordinary robber. If we heard Raymond’s
side of the story, he would tell us about the time a lunatic robbed him, spouted a bunch
of pseudo philosophical BS — “The question, Raymond, was what did you want to be?” — only
stole his drivers license, then left. Tyler tells us a story about how Tyler is a messiah.
We are left assuming that Tyler changed this man’s life for the better. We do not know
that. Whether or not Raymond actually gets his degree, doesn’t matter. “Imagine how
he feels.” Tyler doesn’t want us to imagine how Raymond actually feels. Tyler wants us
to imagine how Tyler wants Raymond to feel. “Tomorrow will be the most beautiful day
of Raymond K Hessel’s life. His breakfast will taste better than any meal you and I
have ever tasted.” In reality, Raymond is not liberated. In reality, Raymond has no
choice, but to follow Tyler’s orders. Raymond hasn’t been watching this movie, so Raymond
has no reason to trust Tyler, no reason to buy into his arcane plan. Tyler asks Raymond a straightforward question:
“Raymond K Hessel, 1320 SE Spanning Apartment A. Small cramped basement apartment?” The
answer to his question is “Yes,” but since Tyler is telling this story, Raymond answers
“How did you know?” Tyler is telling us about a time when he robbed someone and pointed
a gun at the back of their head, and in telling this story, Tyler needs to emphasize that
he knows everything, so he has this person, in the middle of what they think might be
their last moments on earth, praise Tyler’s intelligence. Tyler is right about everything.
“How did you know?” “Because they give s**tty basement apartments letters instead
of numbers.” I don’t even know if that’s true, but we don’t have time to question
it. Because Tyler is never wrong. “I just can’t win with you, can I?” Tyler wins
in every situation no matter how absurd. Everything Tyler sets out to achieve, he accomplishes,
because this is Tyler’s story and he is the hero. “Tyler, you are by far the most
interesting single serving friend I’ve ever met.” Even his victims think so. “How
did you know?” Even on a second viewing. “How did you know?” Notice how, when Tyler
was trying to ask Raymond “what did you want to be?” It takes multiple questions,
and the threat of physical violence. “What’d you study, Raymond?” “Stuff.” “Stuff?
Were the midterms hard?” But when it comes to praising Tyler, Raymond’s response is
immediate. “How did you know?” Watching Tyler drift through the story is like watching
someone play a video game with god-mode on. Raymond’s existence in Tyler’s story serves
Tyler. Later, we see a door covered in drivers licenses. We never see Raymond again. Raymond
is reduced to a bureaucratic identification card. If he did not go back to school, he’s
dead because Tyler killed him. If he did go back to school, he’s dead because he is
no longer in control of his own life. He has been sacrificed to appease Tyler. Raymond’s
name and face are present. But Raymond’s point of view is absent. “You had to give it to him.” No we don’t.
Jack is there to put up the FLIMSIEST defense. Except Jack is not there. Tyler tells us he’s
there, to reassure us that we’re questioning this ridiculous situation along with Jack.
“That wasn’t funny! Wha the f*** was the point of that?” But Tyler is holding the
gun. There’s no actual voice of reason in this scene. Only in the telling of it, for
our sake. The underground fight clubs are supposedly
formed in search of some truth, in search of freedom, but they are predicated on deception.
“The first rule of fight club is you do not talk about fight club. The second rule
of fight club is you do not talk about fight club.” By repeating that rule, Tyler is
inviting us to break it. His cadence even punctuates the sentence as if to say “You
do not” period “talk about fight club.” Talk about fight club. Do not, period. Talk
about fight club. We are a group of people who want to break society’s rules. Here
are rules. Break them. And of course the rules are being broken. That’s the only way the
group can grow. The rule itself prompts members to disavow: “The first rule is, I’m not
supposed to talk about it.” But here I am, talking about it. Later, when Tyler calls
out his followers for breaking the rules, it’s not to punish them. Rather–after a
brief interruption by an authority figure whose rules they’ve been breaking this whole
time–Tyler rewards his men with a new development: “This week, each one of you has a homework
assignment” — the beginning of Project Mayhem. Tyler not only expected people to
talk publicly about Fight Club, he already had the next step of his plan ready, for when
more recruits showed up. Congratulations, you have all been promoted in the corporate
structure of Project Mayhem. Also, Tyler only says “Do not talk about fight club” twice.
And as Tyler himself says: “Promise.” “I just said, I promise.” “That’s
THREE TIMES you promise.” For Tyler, being a loser is the first step
toward being a winner. Whether it’s Jack’s status as a loser with no life. Or literally
losing a fight. So Tyler has a plan. Is it a plan to succeed? To get a win under his
belt to strengthen his leadership position? Nope! “You’re gonna start a fight, and
you’re gonna lose.” So Tyler recruits people who are already losers, then immediately
gives them a losing task that will make them feel even more powerless. This increases their
dependence on Tyler, and increases his power base. Like the way the ringleaders of Gamergate
target insecure gamers, then tell them that all their problems are caused by womz, people
of color, and polygon tiddies not being big enough. Or Teal Swan, the YouTuber who preys
on people with suicidal thoughts, gets them to pay her big chunks of money for “therapy,”
then encourages them to kill themselves by telling them to “visualize killing yourself.”
For Tyler, feeling like a loser is the basis for identity, and the first step into reclaiming
masculine superiority. This conflating of winning and losing parallels the way neo-Nazis
romanticize World War Two, a contest the Nazis resoundingly lost. Or the way pro-slavery
Americans romanticize the Civil War, a contest pro-slavery Americans resoundingly lost. In
his 2006 essay about Fight Club and fascism titled Masochism and Terror, Andrew Hewitt
writes: “This internalization of loss–this paradoxical affirmation of lack as the very
basis of identity–marks the apotheosis of ‘the novel assertion that it is precisely
this loss of the war that is characteristically German… [T]he fascist internalizes lack–ontologizes
alienation–as the very condition of German subjectivity.” Being a loser becomes the
basis for identity. Instead of feeling shame or regret about war and loss, the fascist
doubles down, forming their identity in opposition to an “Other” who has cheated them out
of victory. Hewitt continues with this quote from Nietzsche: “Every sufferer instinctively
seeks a cause for his suffering… more exactly, an agent: still more specifically, a guilty
agent who is susceptible to suffering–in short, some living thing upon which he can,
on some pretext or other, vent his affects, actually or in effigy.” Tyler is the sufferer
who points to society, consumerism, women, or whatever’s convenient in the moment,
as the cause of his suffering. This is why he narrates Jack’s life as so utterly pathetic.
As suicidal. As practically a zombie. Tyler needs Jack to seem powerless, because Tyler
is going to show us, through Jack, the path to power. Assuming that Project Mayhem actually
succeeds and resets debt to zero–which is itself an absurd, fetishized plan–then Tyler
will succeed in reordering society based around loss. Based around lack. A lack of economics,
a lack of structure, a lack of order. And he happens to be the leader of an organization
that is ready to step in and impose its own economics, its own structure, its own order. Man, cops suck! “F***ing pigs!” But also
we are the cops. In 1999, when asked “Did you see [Tyler]
in terms of the literary device of the unreliable narrator?”, Fincher said: “Oh, he’s
totally unreliable.” Fight Club is extra frustrating because not only is our narrator
unreliable, but Fincher himself is also an unreliable storyteller. Unlike Rashomon or
The Last Jedi, where directors Kurosawa and Rian Johnson utilized unreliable narrators
to blatantly call out the subjectivity of storytelling, Fincher indulges in subjective
storytelling. He uses clever dialogue and flat acting to misdirect our attention. “Did
you know that if you mixed equal parts gasoline and frozen orange juice concentrate you can
make napalm?” “No I did not know that, is that true?” “That’s right.” So
instead of thinking “oh my god he’s a terrorist” we–prompted by Jack’s dialogue–think
“wow, what a quirky guy.” “Wow, that Nazi so casually talks about ethnic cleansing!
That’s interesting!” Fincher structures his shots, visuals, and narrative to impose
his order on the viewer. “I just love the idea of this omniscience, like the camera
just kind of goes over here perfectly. There’s none of that documentary kind of feel to it.
It’s very much like what’s happening is doomed to happen. And I like that as the psychological
underpinning.” Fincher’s style does not open things up to interpretation or question.
He has a point of view, an objective, and he will not allow you to stray. Just as Tyler,
in telling his story, has a point of view, an objective, and he will not allow you to
stray. Fincher utilizes a structure that director
Peter Watkins has termed the Monoform, a linear, predetermined format meant to drive the audience
toward a specific conclusion. “Which is simply a name I give to the basic structure
of what we see on television and in a majority sense most of what we see in the commercial
cinema today. Of course it’s a series of rapidly edited pictures, constantly displacing
us from one thing to another, from one subject, one visual image with all its associated metaphorical,
symbolic, personal meanings. Different weight of information on screen, different mass,
different shape, different movement, and we’re asked to deal with that, usually in five,
six or seven seconds, which is the average cutting rate. And you change to the next,
change to the next, and so on and so on, endless barrage of visual information, which is of
course being accompanied by an audio barrage, all being thrust at the audience, in a one
way monolinear push from beginning to end.” Fight Club not only drives toward a foregone
conclusion, Fincher even shows us the ending, without proper context, at the beginning.
“What the audience is to feel or decide at the endpoint here, is already determined
at the beginning point, on all sorts of levels.” By showing us the ending out of context at
the beginning of the film, and then dropping in key information throughout the film, Fincher
makes us feel as if we are undergoing a process of discovery. In actuality, Fincher withholds
key information so that we continue to like Tyler, so that we never think of him as the
terrorist leader he truly is. “Why do you think I blew up your condo!” We are given
the illusion of choice, but we lack choice when confronted with the monoform. “The
whole purpose of 20th century Mass Audio Visual Media is that it is not predicated on incorporating
the ideas, feelings, experiences, subjectivity, memory, knowledge, wisdom of the audience,
or the viewer or viewers, and engulfing them and taking them into the process, and sharing.
20th century mass audio visual media MAVM is designed to withold those, to push those
away, and to instead engulf the people with this fabricated, fragmented, arbitrary process,
where the person’s participation is held out. And that’s why everything is moving
very fast. To hold back any opportunity for the person to have time to come in, and enter
the material and challenge it or negotiate with it or anything.” When Tyler encourages us to question the authority
inherent in consumerism, we as an audience disavow that there are other forms of authority
we should question as well. For example: Tyler’s authority, and the police state he’s trying
to create. When it comes to questioning *Tyler’s* authority, Jack–our standin–only provides
one very specific type of quesiton. “What do you want me to do? You want me to just
hit you?” “Come on, just do me this one favor?” “Why?” “Why why do we need
bunkbeds?” “What why? What’re you talking about?” He frames his questions as a child
asking a parent for their reasoning, instead of actually challenging Tyler’s authority.
Jack never challenges Tyler, never gives an alternate point of view. Always asks for Tyler’s
justification, giving him another platform to lecture at us. And he always accepts that
justification, prompting us to accept that justification. “You had to give it to him.”
If Jack had a YouTube channel today he’d probably be a centrist, insisting: “I’m
just trying to hear both sides.” Tyler dazzles new recruits with his cool, seemingly anti-authoritarian
message while simultaneously stepping into the role of authority figure. Tyler uses a flat, cool tone of voice to seduce
us, whether he’s playing Tyler or playing Jack. “In a catastrophic emergency, you’re
taking giant panicked breaths. Suddenly you become euphoric, docile. You accept your fate.”
Tyler lulls us into feeling docile, into accepting the fate he’s laid out for us. Brecht wrote
about the alienating effect of certain kinds of meta theater. Regarding actors tone of
voice, Brecht said: “[The actor’s] way of speaking has to be free from parasonical
sing-song and from all those cadences which lull the spectator so that the sense gets
lost.” Tyler and Jack utilize the exact kind of sing-song cadence that Brecht denounces.
“You are not a beautiful and unique snowflake. You are the same decaying organic matter as
everyone else.” The soundtrack to the movie, which you can buy at any major music retailer,
even includes a bonus track, co-written by Fincher. Listen, as Tyler Durden coos a bunch
of self-help advice at us. “It’s only after you’ve lost everything that you’re
free to do anything.” If that isn’t sing-song-y, I don’t know what is. Whereas Brecht’s goal
was to alienate us from the narrative, Tyler’s goal is to pull us further into the narrative,
further into his world. Tyler doesn’t want to elevate the spectator, and seemingly neither
does Fincher. The formal aspects of Fincher’s films–more
“insider knowledge,” such as editing, framing, and even the slightest camera move–are
ritualistically fetishized by cinephiles. For example, this youtube video: “Did you
see that? It’s a very small thing, and it’s easy to miss. What is it, exactly? Well, it’s
a camera move.” Fincher’s perfectionism and artificiality are admired, to the point
where any ethical implications about how these techniques are used, become irrelevant. I
don’t mean to call out any youtube channel, specifically. Nerdwriter does great work.
I’m trying to highlight how–when a director is able to trick us, or seduce us with flashy
film production techniques and visual effects–we invest more emotionally, not just in that
narrative, but in the very means of production, themselves. Film has always been a constructed
medium, but the depth of Fincher’s visual manipulation is unprecedented, especially
since he uses these techniques for the most basic dialogue scenes. Even digital editing
techniques that we would never spot with the naked eye are fetishized. “We’re not just
editing shots together anymore, we’re editing pixel by pixel.” Humans are manipulated
on screen, pixel by pixel, to manipulate us, the audience at home. Even though it feels
kind of Big Brother-ish to me, film enthusiasts only show more reverence, more admiration
for Fincher. Metz wrote about this type of film nerd, which he refers to as the cinema
fetishist. “The cinema fetishist is the person who is enchanted at what the machine
is capable of, at the theater of shadows as such. For the establishment of his full potency
for cinematic enjoyment he must think at every moment of the force of presence the film has
and of the absence on which this force is constructed.” One might assume that behind
the scenes videos, directors commentaries, and YouTube videos explaining the meaning
behind a movie would strip away the artifice, but to the cinephile obtaining this sacred
knowledge only adds to the depth of the film, and their enjoyment. Just as we want to participate
in the Tyler Durden power fantasy, so we want to participate in the Fincher-as-director
power fantasy. Wouldn’t it be fun to have all that control?? While his more recent films have a cleaner,
sterile look, for Fight Club, Fincher sought a more gritty, “authentic” look. [Cinematographer] Jeff Cronenweth and I…
talked about making it a dirty-looking movie, kind of grainy. When we processed it, we stretched
the contrast to make it kind of ugly, a little bit of underexposure, a little bit resilvering,
and using new high-contrast print socks and stepping all over it so it has a dirty patina.
What’s resilvering? Rebonding silver that’s been bleached away
during the processing of the print and then rebonding it to the print.
What does that do? Makes it really dense. The blacks become incredibly
rich and kind of dirty. We did it on Seven a little, just to make the prints nice. But
it’s really in this more for making it ugly. We wanted to present things fairly realistically. So much effort to make a perfectly “ugly”
product. “Even the glass dishes with tiny bubbles and imperfections.” To Tyler, life
is trash, so the film looks trashy. So there’s this apparent contradiction in
Fight Club. On one hand, Fincher’s desire to manipulate, pixel by pixel to create the
perfect, idealized image. And on the other hand, this trash aesthetic–a desire to portray
the world as a giant pile of garbage. These ideas may feel out of sync, but there is an
ideology that thoroughly embraces this contradiction. Here we go, this is where we blatantly connect
fight club to fascism! Fascism. Sorry, was that too much of a hard turn? Okay, let me
set up this section about fascism with a quote about fascism. David Fincher said a movie
set’s a fascist dictatorship, when he said: “I think a movie set’s a fascist dictatorship.” Andrew Hewitt writes: “We have forgotten
the proximity of totalitarian thought to the eco-logic of the compost heap. When the narrator
of Fight Club tells us that he ‘wanted to put a bullet through the eyes of every panda
that wouldn’t fuck to save its species,’ the affinity of that eco-logic with a murderous
eugenicism becomes exaggeratedly apparent.” And regarding the way Tyler turns human fat
into explosives, Hewitt writes: “This trope has itself been recycled–this time from the
proto-fascist writings of the Futurist F. T. Marinetti, in whose writings we find ‘the
plainest, most violent of Futurist symbols”: ‘In Japan they carry on the strangest of
trades: the sale of coal made from human bones. All their powderworks are engaged in producing
a new explosive substance more lethal than any yet known. This terrible new mixture has
its principle element coal made from bones with the quality of violently absorbing gases
and liquids.’” Fascists and proto-fascists have always viewed humanity as disposable,
as single-serving, as garbage. Of course an ideology that views humans as compost would
devise policies that lead to the glorification of death in battle, mass graves, and death
camps. The blonde haired, blue eyed superman is fetish object, denying the lack of perfection
in all humans; denying the alienating, painful existence of living under an autocratic regime. Leni Riefenstahl, the Nazi documentarian,
was hyper-aware of the fetish-value of photogenic young men. While filming her Nazi propaganda
films she got upset that so many actual Nazis didn’t live up to her aesthetic expectations.
Prominent Nazi Albert Speer recalled: “I was present when Riefenstahl, in a restaurant
with her staff, was a little bit frank and made some mocking remarks about the bellies
[of the Nazi Brownshirts] not being so good for photographs or some such thing.” Riefenstahl
mocked literal Nazis for not being ideal enough. Riefenstahl biographer Stephen Bach adds:
“[Speer] conspired with her to hide the [Brownshirt] potbellies she mocked behind
thousands of swastika flags.” In this instance, the ultimate fetish symbol for Nazis–the
Swastika–literally obscures actual, pot-bellied Nazis. Nazis with pot bellies are present
at the rally. But they are absent from Riefenstahl’s film. Idealized Nazi imagery is present in
Riefenstahl’s film. But it is absent from reality. Tyler’s body–actually sexy, sexy Brad Pitt’s
body–obscures Tyler’s true form–that of doughy Edward Norton. Tyler invites us to
mock Gucci models, disavowing Brad Pitt’s own highly sexualized body. In fight club,
at least one conventionally unattractive member is allowed. Who happens to be the only member
who dies a violent death. Bob’s body–which his fascist buddies considered grotesque and
wrong–is re-coded by those same buddies after his death; recycled into a perfect symbol
of fascism. “In death, a member of Project Mayhem has a name.” Yes, Robert Paulson
truly achieved glory by smashing the windows of a Starbucks coffee, and then getting shot
in the head. Tyler tells us he had it all: “I had it
all” However, Tyler is aware that he’s missing something that society expects an
adult male to have: a wife. His father even suggests this as a next step: Dad, now what?
He says, I don’t know, get married.” But he refuses, for abstract reasons. “I can’t
get married. I’m a 30 year old boy.” I know I’m thirty years old and it’s like
time to get married but I’m only thirty years old I can’t get married. Tyler holds this anti-romance and anti-sex
attitude, despite the constant sexual dialogue and imagery–especially homoerotic, phallic
and anal imagery–splattered all over the film. But none of the sexual innuendo in the
dialogue or imagery is ever titillating. It’s usually disgusting. It’s almost always played
either flatly, or ironically. “Could check your prostate?” “I think I’m okay.”
Powerful sexual dialogue is usually heard over scenes of violence. “Sometimes all
you could hear were the flat hard packing sounds over the yelling. Or the wet choke
when someone caught their breath and sprayed.” But any kind of emotional or vulnerable sexual
dialogue is usually associated with impotence and disgust. “You cry now.” “Strangers
with this kind of honesty make me go a big rubbery one.” And in the void left behind
in his mind where sex would exist, Tyler finds human suffering. “I’m so close to the
end and all I want is to get laid for the last time.” It’s ironic that Chloe is talking
about sex, because sex is not what arouses Jack here. He’s getting off on her suffering.
Immediately after that, while talking about the meetings, Tyler talks in a sing-song voice
about how it makes him feel. “Every evening I died, and every evening I was born again.”
Tyler is referring to his orgasm. The pain he witnesses in these groups is the pornography
he needs to reach climax. When he “dies,” he’s experiencing “la petit mort.” The
little death. Which is a fancy term that means “the sensation of orgasm as likened to death.”
When he’s resurrected, or rises again… he’s talking about his dick. In framing the story, Fincher visually links
sexual desire with physical illness. It’s very telling that Chloe and Bob are both the
most emotionally honest and open characters in the entire movie, and the only characters
who die in Tyler’s telling of it. Not to mention, they are the characters most guilty
of transgressing the gender binary: Bob, with his massive breasts and missing testicles,
and Chloe, whose femininity has been ravaged by her illness, assuming she presented as
“feminine” in the first place. God forbid Tyler acknowledges any kind of sexual curiosity
outside the heteronormative binary. Tyler strives to make sex undesirable; to
make sexual pleasure feel unattractive and pathetic. It’s possible to read Fight Club
as homoerotic, however, there’s no actual love or attraction between men. Despite the
constant homoerotic imagery, he seems completely uninterested in any kind of sex. The most
homoerotic moments are between Tyler and Tyler. Even Marla seems like a toy at best. Marla is portrayed as disgusting, haggard,
unkempt. Fincher does everything he can to make us feel that Marla is stinky, and once
again links sexual desire to physical illness. “This is cancer, right?” Her sex scenes
are so depraved–”I haven’t been f***ed like that since grade school”–so extreme,
or so abstract, they’re devoid of any conventionally erotic imagery. This is not sex for pleasure.
This is sex as performance. Tyler is performing heterosexuality. Sex for the sake of telling
his friends: “I banged that chick.” Marla is never attractive. Except for one instance.
But before we get to that, let’s go behind the green door. In the novel Fight Club, there’s mention
of various doors: orange, blue, green. But Fincher only keeps the GREEN door in his version.
“Now we’re going to open the green door.” Behind the Green Door was a pornographic movie
released in 1972. It was a massive success, and helped commodify porn by bringing it into
the mainstream. The movie Behind the Green Door is the story of an underground group
of criminals who dress in all black in order to carry out an anarchic mission. They kidnap
people and force them to perform at a sex club. “Ladies and gentlemen, you are about
to witness the ravishment of a woman who has been abducted. A woman whose initial fear
and anxiety have mellowed into curious expectation.” Within the film, the green door itself comes
to symbolize an entry point into a safe space, similar to the support groups. Outside this
safe space–in the outer world–is sexual repression, anxiety, patriarchy. But in here,
on this stage, the participants find a safe space to pursue pleasure. Sexual gratification
for the female main character is framed as positive. It’s telling that the support
group leader in Fight Club says we’re going to open our green doors, and soon after, Chloe
talks specifically about her *sexual* desires in front of the group. Clearly, Fincher is
drawing a link between the two. But I don’t think it’s simply the pursuit of sexual
pleasure that links Fight Club and Behind the Green Door. Before the main character engages in an orgy
on stage, she undergoes a kind of guided meditation, led by a woman whose dialogue is oddly similar
to the kinds of things Tyler says. “Poor child, I know exactly how you feel. I’m
going to tell you everything that’s going to take place, so there’s no need to be
frightened. I’m your friend.” Both characters use a soothing tone of voice to coax the audience
stand-in into doing things they wouldn’t otherwise be okay with. In addition to the
massage lady, as the performance begins, a disembodied voice tells us to obey. “Remember,
you are sworn to observe silence. If you break this rule, you will be dealt with severely.”
The implication becomes: obey the rules and you will find pleasure. “With the knowledge
that you are powerless to stop the performance, just relax, and enjoy yourself to the fullest
extent.” Just as Tyler’s words and deeds give us the illusion of agency or choice in
his theatre of destruction, so too, this announcer’s assumption that we could somehow interfere
helps us feel as though we have agency. As though we could somehow interrupt a movie
that’s already been shot and distributed. In Behind the Green Door, we have an authority
figure giving the main character–our standin–the freedom to enjoy something transgressive:
her own sexuality; permission to enjoy something that she should already be free to enjoy.
In Fight Club, we have an authority figure who gives the main character–our standin–freedom
to enjoy something transgressive: terrorism; permission to enjoy something that is antithetical
to the very concept of freedom. And these are the themes that link Behind
the Green Door and Fight Club: this tension between pursuing what you want, but also looking
to an authority figure for permission to pursue, or looking to them for a list of pre-approved
pleasures you may pursue. The green door metaphor used in the support
group is meant to help people cope with long lasting emotional pain, or chronic physical
illness. In the chemical burn scene, Tyler has set up a false parallel to the support
groups. Tyler’s goal in this scene is to make this act of physical assault seem comparable
with the existential and chronic pain experienced by members of the support group. Tyler, who
is a physical and emotional abuser, manages to make his actions seem as inevitable as
death by terminal cancer. Those support group members do not have a simple, immediate means
of alleviating their pain. They cannot just pour vinegar on their cancer, or missing testicles,
or tuberculosis. But to a naive audience member who hasn’t had to cope with long-lasting
emotional or physical trauma, who is looking for a reason to claim victimhood, the comparison
may feel attractive . Tyler “feels” like he has the answers–”You can run water over
your hand to make it worse, or, look at me, or you can use vinegar to neutralize the burn”–even
though he’s concocted an absurd scenario with a predetermined conclusion. And this happens to be the only moment in
the entire film where Marla is presented as sexually desirable in a visual sense. Jack
makes one last ditch effort to block out the pain and pursue pleasure. And this is the
moment that “Jack” closes his green door. He stops trying to escape to his safe space,
and never bothers trying to go there again. He’s left with a scar which resembles vaginal
lips. Sexual imagery recoded as a mark of pain. A fetish object that denies the lack
of pleasure. Shortly afterwards, he denies Marla the sex that she’s come to expect.
“Are we done?” “Yeah, we’re done.” We see her again in the Paper Street house,
but there’s no sexual tension anymore. He has metaphorically closed his door to his
pleasure center, and chosen to pursue pain. Tyler’s safe space is not just a *room*. Not
just a single location where you’re prohibited from saying the word ‘duvet.’ It’s a world
where you’re prohibted from saying the word ‘duvet,’ or doing anything else he doesn’t
approve of. If Fincher set out to tell a cautionary tale
about the way we are so easily manipulated by media, celebrities, and people in positions
of power, then he failed because his target audience–guys like us–clearly didn’t get
that message. I mean, they went on to actually create fight
clubs. Or if he set out to make a movie that exploits that same bro-ey audience, and he’s
laughing at anyone who enjoys it for being such gullible losers, then… okay? Good on
you? Whatever the meaning may be to you, or me,
or anyone else, Fight Club is unquestionably a powerful narrative. It’s more than just
Fincher using his commercial director skills to sell us fascism. It’s more than just
a tale of insecure masculinity. In Hollywood, sometimes you hear the saying:
“We’re not in the entertainment business, we’re in the empathy business.” The optimistic reading of that statement is:
we’re looking to find the emotionally honest core to our story; that we work hard to strip
away artifice and deliver a meaningful product. The cynical, commercial reading of that statement
is that we’re simply taking a generic product, then wrapping it in packaging that signals
to the audience that they are supposed to feel empathy. And I’ll give you one guess
whether or not Fincher is cynical about commercials, as one of the most successful commercial directors
of all time: “I’m extremely cynical about commercials and about selling things and about
the narcissistic ideals of what we’re supposed to be. I guess in my heart I was hoping people
are too smart to fall for that stuff.” I talked a lot about how narrow and controlled
Tyler’s point of view is in framing this story. There are very, very few moments where
his narrative slips. Very few times where it feels like Fincher is commenting ON Tyler,
instead of Fincher simply having fun as the one controlling the story THROUGH Tyler. Here’s
one example: In the first act, we see a woman with a shaved head in the background. She’s
there again when Chloe speaks, and these two seconds are the only time we really get a
good look at her, in focus. We may assume Chloe has a shaved head, but she keeps hers
covered. In a movie where the vast majority of shots are highly motivated, distorted,
emotionally jarring… this shot is quiet, matter of fact. Almost an hour and a half
later, we see members of Project Mayhem shave their heads. By the end, Tyler has a shaved
head. One woman’s actual experience with cancer is these white guys’ idea of a ‘fun
haircut.’ In appropriating this look, Tyler and his men attempt to appropriate a symbol
of victimhood itself. He goes from appropriating the pain of being in a support group to appropriating
the haircut of a woman with cancer. As if to say: “Look, my haircut shows that society
is killing me! Society is committing a genocide against meeee! One might call it… a white
genocide!” As their actions escalate from pranks toward straight up terrorism, they
escalate from simple appropriation of victimhood to the colonization of victimhood. Their home
base even resembles a work camp, or concentration camp, as if to constantly remind Tyler’s
followers that they “deserve” to identify as oppressed. There’s no frontier left to conquer, there’s
no more “New World” to pillage. So now, we plunder hearts and minds. This “colonization
of victimhood” allows Tyler and his men to justify pretty much anything, because now
they can claim they have been wronged, by simply pointing to this visual marker: the
shaved head. Tyler is hell bent on teaching young men that they’ve been disenfranchised.
That their feelings are cancer. That love is death. And that ultimately, your death–in
service of Tyler–is freedom. And that’s just sad, more than anything else. Sad that
we live in an age of technological miracles, yet despite that, a lot of the people who
benefit most directly from society’s advantages would rather spend their time tearing others
down, pushing people out, stripping freedom from other people, and dehumanizing them. Sad that the leader of the free world actually
did come up with an alternate personality, named John Barron, so he could tell everyone
about how great he is, in the third person. “Over the years I’ve used aliases. If
you’re trying to buy land, you use different names.” “What names did you use?” “I
would use–I actually used the name Barron.” And he did manage to fool reporters. But also,
he never shuts up about what a victim he is. How “unfair” everyone is to him. “What
you said is so insulting to me. It’s a very terrible thing you said.” How–actually–YOU
are the racist. “That’s such a racist question.” But as I’ve been wrapping up this video,
the universe supplied an even more apt comparison. Gavin McInnes–founder of the violent, racist
Proud Boys, a group with obvious inspiration from Fight Club–released a video to say he’s
quitting the Proud Boys. He’s trying to distance himself from the group, after nine
of his followers were arrested for assault shortly following an appearance by McInnes
himself, at the Metropolitan Republican Club in New York City. At that appearance, McInnes
reeancted the assassination of a Japanese socialist as part of a “comedy” routine,
because he’s not funny. The arrests only came after New York Police were criticized
for protecting the Proud Boys. “I was never the leader, only the founder.” I know that
I founded this group, but I did not lead this group. As we watch Gavin McInnes squirm, trying
to distance himself from the violent hate group he founded, we see the cowardly selfishness
of a paternalistic leader who is finally afraid he’ll be held to account. His speech reads
like a list of the rhetorical devices we’ve been covering in this video. For the entire duration of this thirty six
minute video, even though he covers a variety of topics, McInnes stands next to a photo
of one of the Proud Boys, and his wife who happens to be a person of color. He appropriates
what he sees as the external symbol of her oppression–her skin color–and uses this
image as a literal prop, as “evidence” that he–Gavin McInnes–is the one who is
truly oppressed. He has chosen this photo to disavow the fact that his gang targets
marginalized groups, to disavow his obvious bigotry. Her image is present, but any voice
from those marginalized groups he targeted are absent. In this age of information, we really do have
front row seats in our theater of mass destruction thanks to the internet. There’s so much
news, so much data, so many points of view to sift through. And people in power use that
to their advantage. Whereas the 20th century version of the Monoform was linear video in
the form of tightly packaged TV programming or movies, now we have Twitter, Facebook,
and YouTube, which fragment viewpoints and meaning even more. The very technology that
isolates us, also advertises itself as the solution to that isolation. I’ve been trying to figure out how I come
to a conclusions in a video where I’ve specifically pointed out the dangers of driving toward
a predetermined conclusion. And I think that conclusion is simply: we need to get better,
as a society, at questioning narratives, questioning authority; stop just asking why, and start
asking who is benefiting from this story? And the answer in Fight Club is only one person
benefits: Tyler. Thanks for making it to the end of this very
long video. And a deep, special thank you to all my patrons who were incredibly patient,
as this video took a long time to finish. And thanks to all my wonderful friends who
provided voices for the video. You can check out all their links below, I’m sure you
recognized a few of them already. And If you want to see more videos like this, or more
light-hearted funny videos about terrible B-Movies, head on over to patreon dot com,
where you can support too. And of course if you like this video, feel free to like and
subscribe, and if you’ve already subscribed, hit that little button so you get a notification
when I release a video. Until then… bye!

100 Replies to “FIGHT CLUB [Film Analysis with Maggie Mae Fish]”

  1. Think yr reading of FC is a little overstated here. Mostly well articulated assertions If I'm honest.
    FC would be a very dull forgettable movie if it had no ambiguities regarding Tyler's appeal or the legitimacy of project mayhem. The death of Bob the mistreatment or Marla and the weird group think of Tyler's space monkeys all point to the basic flawed destructiveness of Tyler and his behaviour. But again to just preach this outright would be completely dull and completely different movie.
    The story completely lacks a critique of patriarchy and instead focusses on consumerism. This definitely weakens it analytically imo.
    The worst thing for me is Marlas totally instrumental nature. Although she impacts the story she remains a completely passive charactor.
    I'm pretty sure FC came before YouTube feminist education. I think people nowadays would react more critically than back then.

  2. I feel like Fight Club can be a very useful film to some people- but I don't think most people- let's be real- most MEN should be allowed to watch it. It can serve as a cautionary tale, but there's a certain level of wokeness that people need to have in order to see the film for what it CAN be. There should be, like, a roller-coaster sign with this movie. You must be THIS woke to watch "Fight Club."

  3. It's one thing to apply theoretical concepts like these to works of art, but I pity those who construct the world around them in such a manner.

  4. Excellent video! Also, I heard hbomb. It appears that breadtube and the cracked diaspora have started to merge lol

  5. I understand what you're getting at when your speaking about Triumph of the Will, but saying that the "idealized Nazi imagery" is absent from reality is blatantly wrong. While hiding the overweight SA members is true, the SA was never the ideal of Nazism, nor was it supposed to be, (look up the Night of the Long Knives/ Operation Hummingbird) that title fell to the SS where there were strict physical and political standards in order to be eligible for membership. Though, late in the war these standards were lowered as the need for man power rose.

    SS requirements circa ~1935
    – Blonde hair, blue eyes
    – At least 168 CM tall
    – No criminal record
    – No cavity fillings
    – Pure German heritage back to 1800 or 1750 for officers
    – Good physical condition
    – And other more niche examples

    As you said, in Triumph of the Will there is copious amounts of idealized Nazi imagery, but that is because the young men and boys represented in the film were members or supporters of the NSDAP. The German ideal was not true of every member for the Party, you need only look at Himmler for proof of that, but just because it wasn't true of all, doesn't mean it was true for many.

  6. Also you're really reaching with the whole shaved head = appropriating cancer idea. Is every military around the world appropriating cancer patients in order for veterans to get sympathy? Do the members of project mayhem wear all black because they sympathize with emos and goths? Do they wear combat boots to emulate angsty teenage girls who just hate their dad and want to look "edgy?"

    No, they do it because it is practical. These men are members of a paramilitary organization, therefore they're going to try to emulate a militaristic look because it is effective, practical, and a staple of Fascism (i.e. Italian blackshirts, Mosley and the B.U.F., the Allgemeine SS)

  7. Someone else has pointed out that you’ve mischaracterised the movie in the first 27 seconds of your video. They’re absolutely correct and you’ve also engaged in reductionism, conveniently ignoring the nuances that prove your thesis is shonky.

  8. Full disclosure, could only watch about 10 minutes. A few criticisms: look up "Jungian shadow", Tyler literally describes himself as such to Jack in the hotel room. Secondly, and this'll be harsh, so sorry, but aside from starting out with "the story is actually Tyler's, not Jack" which sounds interesting, but is definitely a misread of the film; the rest I listened to sounds like an essay for a women's studies or gender studies class or something. Problem with that is, you're analyzing the film through a narrow lense and bringing in personal biases to build upon. Like with Marla, the whole "if we heard more for Marla we'd understand [the film] better", but Marla already serves a pretty important role by showing us Jack's feelings towards relationships, which evolves when his Id (Tyler) gets involved, and resolves itself at the end with the self reflection, self destruction, rebirth arc finishing up literally as the film ends.

  9. fight club, or, how some dude's mary sue managed to create and propagate an even worse society than what they departed from

  10. I'm largely there with you but I'm going to put in a solid defense of rewatching the Sixth Sense. I don't think the twist or the mystery is that compelling but the character growth and the interactions are very worth while.

  11. Your projecting your tumblr feminism fan-fiction ideology on everything you see in life. A pity because you look gorgeous but your intellectual is a shame.

  12. The point of Fight Club isn't that Tyler is cool, it is that he feels cool, but once you take a step back and think about it he's a crazy person harnessing men's fragile masculinity and disaffection with society to brainwash them. Jack first deluded himself and then others into a false narrative about reclaiming manhood. But it is really just a power play, that everyone will ultimately suffer from.

  13. I love your videos. I love this video. I’m so pleased with your guest voices because I recognized most of them before I read the credits and I’m ecstatically happy for you to be in running in the circles with such good folk that I’d want to be friends with.

    TL;DR: Good show, love!

  14. Marla is Chloe, Marla Singer has the surname of the real actor who played the role of Chloe, remember her speech "i have oils, dildos …..etc " which we see in Marla's room? Tyler is an agent of chaos who was created by the narrator's insomnia and his struggle to take a nap happens in his mind "fight club". Fight club is the narrator's mind, with all those personalities fighting to prevail, in the end Marla wins. There are many mirror characters, Marla-Chloe, Bob-Lou, Tyler-Narrator … and many more. In the end the narrator learns that whoever we hate and fight lives in our minds, but whoever we love lives in our hearts, and in the end the void is covered with love! All the movie is a struggle of an insomniac guy (caused by anxieties) to go to sleep.

  15. This critique is great a lot of the time. All around good work, great citations. I agree sixty percent, and I hope you don't mind me saying, in good faith,

    Two things aren't that clear from viewing: Do you think that Palanuk or Fincher were trying to make anti-cult or anti-fascism media? It always seemed to me that they just fell into that old trap: 'you can't make a war movie that doesn't make war look sexy.' Certainly, I'd agree with you that this film goes out of its way to make these things look sexy, though I'm not always sure when it's intentional. It's a maximallist, splattery film. Secondly: you don't give the anti-consumerism themes any time of day. The people who worked on it say they were moved by that Buddhist, reject the physical world ideal. (again, quick aside: Buddhism has plenty of misogyny problems), but the anti-consumerist themes, woven in with an embrace of visceral experiences are a major part of the films appeal. While these themes and ideals may be undercut by the film at times, so are most of the olive-branch/carrot not stick/ anglerfish 'good ideas' you talk about. You seem really dismissive of the anti-materialistic bent of the movie, but I think it's something that the people making it wanted front and center. I'd like to know how you feel about it.

  16. If you only view the world in terms of victims and oppressors you end up with project mayhem. This analysis is based on the assumption that all narratives should be read in terms of winners and losers. It's easy to see how you would come to the conclusions that you have if narratives are just weapons to be used against the enemy or propaganda to recruit people to your cause. Fight Club is not a weapon or propaganda – it's a mirror, like most fiction.

  17. I hope this is not your last video, i like your take on it all. I wrote a comment before both agreeing/disagreeing with your thoughts. I see your statements as being very straightforward and hard to disavow, perhaps I am unable to fully justify motivations for watching. Oh i used disavow and i forgot it was in the review, nice! I watched this a few months ago and was very interested

  18. I always find it sad to see women embarking on the absolutely, absolutely hopeless task of trying to understand how a man's mind works. Lady, you got it all wrong, having it dressed up in the fashion of the day that is "toxic masculinity".

  19. Whether or not her assertion is correct, the argument is incredibly insightful, well reasoned, and fun. I love video essays, and this is easily one of the best. Love it!

  20. Gamergate was racist!
    …but why would anyone need an excuse to be anonymously racist on the internet…?
    Cuz they’re racist!

    Proud Boys are racist!
    …but why would white supremacists have families with non-white spouses…?
    Cuz they’re racist!

    For a video that is asking people to challenge what they are being fed, the smug blindess of your real world references is staggering.

    You and your narrating friends are artist class people pretending to support the working class, yet you throw the working class under the bus at every opportunity based on propaganda you have been given by the ruling class.

    Then you close the video by e-begging, just like all the other faux-socialists.

  21. I thought I had seen every hot take/analysis of fight club but this is the best I have ever seen. It really fits the themes of the untrustworthy narrator.

  22. I gotta say. I think your analysis is sound, but YOU were well aware of the fact, that there are multiple readings of this film. I think you are intentionally sticking to a reading that is less common among viewers, perhaps to illicit a reaction, or perhaps to take the review less traveled. My reading is that the Narrator, Jack, is tempted out of his life by two forces. First Marla, which he rejects and creates Tyler. Tyler takes him down a path that's far too extreme, and he realized that he should have stuck with Marla, who also rejects the status quo, but to a safer extent.

  23. The who losing a fight tactic was for the purposes of recruiting new members. You let someone win a fight against you and they feel empowered, and then you recruit them. You actually see the priest from the sequence, later in the film, in Fight Club.

  24. I think you miss the point completely so down voted. We are not faceless consumers, we are faceless philosophers. We may not be buying into consumerism but we are buying into the next ideology that clearly states what it wants to be.

    We are not our jobs. We are not how much money we have in the bank. We are not our khakis. But we are not the all seeing all dancing crap of the world either.

    We can be what we want to become, what we idealise (if we are being honest with ourselves). if we want to be a father figure we will move toward that.

    And most importantly if we have the will power we don't have to bend to anyone, even ourselves.

  25. I like this video, but some of the arguments really seemed like a stretch to me.

    How is the question "How did you know?" = praise?

    I get what you're saying about Tyler wanting to present himself as this all knowing messiah, but "how did you know" is not praise.

    It's certainly fear, fear that this lunatic might be a stalker, fear that he really will show up one day demanding a report card or graduation certificate, but it is not /praise/ in any sense of the word.

  26. Another film which encourages the audience to disavow terrorism is They Live. I’m thinking specifically of the scene towards the end with the shoot out at the television news studio. If the film is a metaphor for humanity then I would say this approves an act which I would consider a form of terror. I once heard Zizek say that They Live is a “classic of the left.” I don’t necessarily disagree but the film can just as easily (or more easily) be interpreted as a classic of the ultra-right.

  27. In light of this interpretation, I also think it's interesting how Fincher changes the ending. In the book, the bombs don't go off, and when the narrator/Jack/Tyler shoots himself he wakes up in a mental hospital, with the hospital employees revealing themselves to be Project Mayhem members eagerly awaiting the return of their leader. So in the book he's confined in a place that explicitly labels him as a crazy person (where he seems to want to be), but his power is revealed to be the true nightmare, one that he cannot escape. In Fincher's Fight Club, it ends with the narrator triumphantly basking in the victory of a successful plan and newfound ownership/control of this power.

  28. I've just recently watched Dan Olsen's video on Fight Club and toxic masculinity, so I literally lol'd when he came in as Fincher lmao

  29. Yooo, your "Porky Pig Goes Womp-Womp" noise at 36:03 is 95% of why I will be subscribing to your channel! Also, I liked this analysis and will check out your other stuff 🙂

  30. A woman was never meant to understand. You stupid bitch. Women have built nothing, invented nothing. Man invented written language and the printing press and Novels, and cameras and film school. The frustration is the lowercase man living in a Female world that He built and created.

    You know about as much about it as a man knows about growing tits or having a period

  31. You attempt to describe Male angst in a modern unNatural world by chastising your latent masters. The book is about being young men being dissatisfied by the reality that their greatest skills are not only no longer needed, but seen as archaic and obsolete.

    Nothing could be further from the truth. And the society who eventually conquers "The West" will surely prize masculinity.

    You know nothing of Culture or of Mankind.

  32. You recognise of course that you are reproducing the same critiques regarding the monostory yes?

  33. Nothing screams "I'm a pretentious moron" quite like the phrase 'cultural fascism and the colonization of victimization'.

  34. Another disavowal: I believe the story is actually a cautionary tale about mistakenly adopting one toxic extreme as the answer to another, Tyler Durden is in no way intended to be the hero of the story (no matter how many dude bros misread it as such), and the subversion of audience perception is a common storytelling device and not some sort of malevolent manipulation BUT… I appreciate seeing a different take on it, still really love this channel and am really happy to have found it today. 🙂

  35. I reALLy L0vE this! Have you done any Kubrick movies? I absolutely adore his movies and I MUST see you analyze his work.

  36. "We are a generation of men raised by women. I'm wondering if another woman is the answer we really need."

  37. Madam, I just discovered your content, and I am blown away. I love this movie and will never look at it the same way. I am a sucker for intelligent discourse on the nature of storytelling, and you have just earned an instant subscriber.

    Are you a MauLer fan by chance? 😁

  38. The segment on the monoform was particularly interesting – so many new films and shows right from the start I get the feeling that I've seen them before or that I'll know how it ends, and constantly the feeling that I'm being beaten over the head with whatever messages the media has for me.

    I just assumed I was getting old.

  39. Fight club doesn't exist on an academic platform.This woman just enjoys hearing herself sound more clever by deconstructing the unknowable, wittingly sneaking in the toxic masculinity stamp *pats her own back*with edited philosophy and calling it a day.Living with extreme cases of ptsd in a bad society growing up in poor homes,may give you access to understanding it fully but this is just upper class blow hards looking through the mirror at a zoo never understanding the emotions of the animals, pontificating on the next mirror.Really cliche ideas your presenting and again academic blow hards that sit in there house drinking tea romanticizing about what humans feel like and its intricate writing structure."We need to do better as a society."Really?What are you doing for society instead of a 30 min rant.How about donating or helping families in broken homes or neighborhoods that's a start.

  40. You're like a bargain bin Lindsay Ellis.

    I'm kidding, I'm sorry, don't be mad, I love you, you're better than Lindsay, don't hit me!

  41. Great analysis. My understanding is a bit different from yours but I hope y’all could still entertain me for a few minutes.

    There are a few pretentious reasons I own this film on DVD.

    Firstly it’s a perversion of male initiation. When I was in my teens, I had to do a study of Robert Bly’s Iron John. And in it the writer talks about how men need to be initiated into manhood only by a group of elder men. I would argue that Fight Club is a perversion of Iron John, in fact that’s what I assumed before knowing that Chuck Palahniuk, had actually done research for the book by interviewing men. Fight Club makes a commentary about the over-gentrification of men to the point that they are feminized. No part is this more evident than when Jack/Tyler has his co-conspirators “attack” random men as part of his burgeoning “Project Mayhem”. I actually laughed in the theatre when none of the men they tried to pick on fight back and in fact tried to shy away from any sort of confrontation (And if you notice, they purposely only picked on men that were like themselves). “Project Mayhem” of course, culminated in the act of leveling several buildings at the end of the film, signaling the toppling of old societal structures and their views of modern manhood.

    Secondly, I believe Fight Club makes the argument that the old school views of manhood are also wrong, if we can see Marla Singer as the embodiment of Carl Jung’s Anima — our inner feminine. We see Marla Singer as dirty, unkempt as is our feminine selves when men ignore it for too long by embracing that horrid old-school machismo which society has now termed Toxic Masculinity. A man, and even a woman I’ll argue — need to exist with both his/her Anima and Animus intact, as we see Jack finally holding hands with Marla Singer, which symbolizes his acceptance of his Anima — his feminine self.

    Finally, on the emergence of groups such as Incels. This and other groups of men feel disconnected with a society that no longer wants what was once considered acceptable or excusable behavior for men. Being a man myself, I empathize but I also think that it is more important than ever to teach men how to be men again —- not by adopting the old toxic patterns of behavior, but by sticking up for the feminine and fighting for society so that the Anima and Animus can exist together.

  42. Cultural Fascism and the Colonization of Victimhood? I'd say it's more like a Toxic Masculinity Internalized Misogyny Intersectional Rape Culture Tragedy Porn crossed with Microaggression Gentrification Fetishization.

  43. Oh Maggie, I think someone like Tyler would be INCREDIBLY TURNED ON by someone like you. I'm dead serious.

  44. Imagine a man talking as confidently and snidely about femininity as this bitch talks about masculinity, a topic she is anatomically and intellectually unqualified to discuss hahahaha.

  45. Fight Club is about alienation in capitalism and modern society,even the

    individual monologue as the narration of the story,express this,every moment he can see it from distance with a cold logic.He doesn't say the story knowning the story but every moment look like a story in his head.I n Fight Club there is a alienated hunting for something which will make the protagonist to feel "alive",he doesn't find it in sex("sex freedom" is not freedom,De Sade had made it clear i think),emotional pain or sadism but in a masochist way in physical pain.The protagonist's mental health suffer,but in the same time he has a deeper knowledge of our society from the average person. Now this person has a fight between

    his nihilism,which has the shape of an ideology, his fear for nihilism and love as his mental instability build his "reality".And something for the ladies:You can't fight for a better future without to be a hard person. You must fight this world with its guns,you must use violence. You need Dante,Marx,Lenin,Becket,etc,not sissies(these persons can be also women).Tyler is "guilty" for his nihilistic ideology and that he hasn't critical spirit,not for his "muscularity" or the way he tricks society and survive or because he is angry.

  46. Best artists work like "dictators"(you will listen the same thing for Beckett for example), and that is the right way if you want to have freedom to create.Your try to make Finscher to look like a fascist is dirty.

  47. Yeah that's why they shave their head(then woman with cancer/victims) ,not because is a sympol of military and war…

  48. Before watching this video I was sort-of in the idea of "hey, Fight Club is supposedly to talk about toxic masculinity and shitty people, if someone find them attractive is their fault of being stupid". After watching it I am more curious about how creators manipulates the narrative of their stories, even how I manipulate the narrative from myself! The possible fascism spreading from this film it reminds me how some reactionaries argues against feminism with Gone Girl, another film from Fincher. I'd like to think that Fincher is not speading toxic ideas to his audience, but after all now I have my doubts.

  49. I like certain stuff about the film but man oh man… Annoying how the salt right act like this movie is the greatest thing ever and they think the Brad Pitt character is some kind of ideal man that all dudes should strive to be. So… be a stupid asshole? That's what you guys want to be? Shameful…

  50. I always thought Jack was supposed to represent to the audience the feigning of a conscience in a narcissistic sociopath. It always reminded me of listening to Ted Bundy talk, pretending to be a “good, all American guy.” Just my thoughts though.

  51. Tyler is his ID… his subconscious ego…. my ID/subconscious ego is a HUGE a-hole and probably a narcissistic serial killer 😂😂

  52. To me tyler embodies what most men are sold as an ideal of male behaviour. Hes like a blond bombshell in a film noir, seducing everyone with his ability to do male drag. He is in a way the pervect sociopath. All along he seduces us into this fantasy of maleness that is quite horrifying. I thought that connection to the soft porn movie brilliant. A work of art is simply a reflection of what its creator is struggling with. It's about polarity in a male world driven by dog eats dog. Ultimately its great that we can't answer the questions of who is who.

  53. "They want freedom from the terrible burden of free choice." LOVE that! As for the rest, interesting take. I always felt I was missing something in this movie. Other analyses of it seemed to be lacking too.
    Both versions can be right. If Tyler & Jack are interchangeable, then why not?

    I figured out the dual personality thing too early the first time. Now I have a reason to re-watch this if the chance should arise.

  54. Heh. Ever seen Jane Elliott on The Rock Newman Show? It's here on Youtube. You might enjoy it as she completely catches Americans & "we see the cowardly selfishness of a paternalistic leader who is finally afraid he'll be held accountable." From the one minute fourteen second to the 2-minute mark.
    Yeah. It takes her less than a minute to do it in real life. Awesome!!!

  55. For someone who takes time to bring up German Expressionism to her viewers, it seems rather strange to me that Maggie has entirely missed the point that this film sets up a very deliberate metaphor using Pitt and Norton’s character to illustrate what can happen when someone has a poorly integrated “shadow self” (to use Jung’s term). It is indeed a “cautionary tale” in the traditional sense, in that it examines how internally fractured the psyche (especially the male psyche) can become in modern day—a time when men have been nearly conditioned to accept that their role in society is all but obsolete. Even if you take the gender piece out of the equation (though you shouldn’t, because this film speaks directly to physical aggression, toward which men do have a stronger leaning), it’s a gripping look at the kind of wish fulfillment and behavioural justification that a person can fall into when they feel small, powerless, and have been unable to find any kind of real meaning or purpose in their lives. This story was actually well ahead of its time – you could call it prophetic in many ways. Much of the split that we are seeing between these two characters is now occurring between groups of people in society, whether marked by identarian politics or something else. Tyler is the epitome of cumulative resentment that has built over time in the psyche, and has now manifested in very real and very dangerous ways. His literal act of “beating himself up” is equally away a call to free oneself from the shackles of indifference and apathy, and to embrace all of the emotions of despair and anger that, with a better outcome, would sublimate into something purposeful and meaningful, and that would give Jack the true feeling of importance and significance that we are all craving at our core. This is also the reason that he has no interest in sex: he is feeling “impotent” as a person – totally and utterly useless, and thus unworthy of pleasure and love. All of the men that he recruits are resorting to violence and to “fight club” because they lack purpose and responsibility, especially to themselves. That you resent the director’s audacity to have a “point of view and perspective” is actually pretty comical (and sad to a degree). I guess this is the world we live in now: one of postmodern pastiche and imitation or catering to the socially sanctioned ideology. Everything is either derivative, stolen, dismissive of serious issues, or an assault on specific groups of people. No wonder so many of today’s mainstream films are such narrative failures: they offer the very bare minimum of character development in exchange for a path of a least resistance (or of least offense to the masses, if you will). But this is not authentic storytelling. Stories are about people, their interactions with each other, human nature–and in a dark story such as this one–how people can be driven to the acts of terrorism and other atrocities that you are pointing out in your analysis. The film does not provide apologies for this outcome, but it does shed a very stark light on the path that can bring people to its doorstep. By the time Jack realizes that he is the monster/villain in his own story, the damage has already been dealt (to himself and to many others). That Brad Pitt was cast as Tyler is also quite deliberate: Fincher sets him up as good-looking and charismatic, to emphasize the lore of corrupt (or as you’ve said yourself “fascist”) dictators can grab a hold of people when they are at their lowest point (in essence, drifting despondently through life, while harbouring resentment toward others for their own misery rather than focusing on individual responsibility). This is also, by the way, ideology that is not exclusive to fascism. It is also the nuts and bolts of communism, just manifested differently.

  56. I've always enjoyed looking at it as if the house is the brain, Jack, Tyler and Marla are the three dominate personalities in a struggle for control.

  57. waaaaaait… the standard reading of jack's hallucination is schizophrenia from boredom? Not insomnia and depression?
    Have I just never read a standard reading? Orrr?

  58. i dunno, to see the movie that way as the main character was us or the good guy seems an "immature" way to see it. From first viewing it was fun but always seemed to show that the main character was self centered, hollow and lacking care for the effects of their actions. Marla always seemed used. and the dissasociation was just cuz he suppressed his narcisism. Always was clear

  59. This is hard to watch because it feels like you're wrong about nearly everything. From intended audience, to who jack even is.

  60. I grew up with someone who had Fight Club as their favorite movie of all time. Their reasoning was simply because "it's awesome and its anti-establishment". It should have been a red flag

  61. Some constructive criticism/petty nonsense:

    I hate to be the type of person who comments before I've watched until the end, BUT the constant use of 'Jack' bugs me and stops me from enjoying your analysis fully.

    The Norton character does not have a name in the book or the movie. He is simply known as the 'narrator' in the film.
    In fight club 2 the character chooses a name from the many examples from the many support groups he attends (bowel cancer etc). From 'hamish' to 'running wolf' he eventually settles on 'Sebastian'.

    I can see where you've got 'jack' from, but it's not his name. Also, I noticed that you didn't reference his insomnia which greatly contributes to the narrator's double life.

  62. THIS IS THE BEST INTERPRETATION OF FIGHT CLUB EVER. i share the same analysis

    additionally there are so many hypocrisies in the film besides the constant rule breaking

    there are many product placements too like Krispy Kreme, Apple, and Pepsi despite the consumerist critique; "we cant be movie gods or rock stars" spoken by BRAD PITT in a movie where MEAT LOAF AND JARED LETO ARE LITERALLY IN THE CAST as though its a big fuck u to the audience; etc.

    i cant think more atm but there's more

  63. I started watching this video and subscribed. Then half way through I unsubscribed because I realized that she was gonna use Tyler Durdan as an allegory for trump. Skip to the end and that's exactly what she did lol.
    If men don't understand what its like to be a woman then what makes her think that she will understand what it's like to be a man?
    To relate to characters like Tyler Durden or the world of masculinity?
    You can't claim an unbiased critical position when you have an agenda.

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