Cult of Mithras Explained

Cult of Mithras Explained


Christianity wasn’t the only up-and-coming religion in the Roman Empire. Another god by the name of Mithras had attracted his own cult following around the first century CE. And this lasted a few hundred years until it disappeared by the fifth century. This so-called cult of Mithras is one of the least understood ancient religions. And unfortunately, one of the most misrepresented religions too. Part of the problem is that Mithras has become an unwilling hostage in a battle over the existence of Jesus himself. With some people arguing that both Mithras and Jesus spring from some universal savior god motif, and that both of these guys share certain characteristics, like the claim that they were born on December 25th, that they were born of a virgin, or that they both had twelve disciples. – There’s the Persian god Mithra 600 years before Christ, born December 25th, preformed miracles, resurrected on the third day, known as the lamb; the way; the truth; the light; the savior messiah… – Stop! The problem is, all of these claims that Bill Maher just cited are actually completely false. I’m sorry Bill, I really like you, you’re one of the best political satirists out there, but let’s leave the ancient history to the professionals. The cult of Mithras did indeed get its start during the rise of Christianity. They shared a cultural moment and shared sociological characteristics of late Roman religion. But all this hype that Mithras and Christ were cut from the same cloth is just that: hype. So let’s set aside the wild zeitgeist theories for a little bit, and delve into the archeological evidence, which reveals one of the coolest ancient religions. What do we really know about the cult of Mithras, and how much mutual influence did it have on Christianity? The cult of Mithras was a religious movement that got its start in Rome around the first century CE centered on the worship of a Romanized Persian god, Mithras. Commonly depicted as a man dressed in Persian garb slaying a bull. By the third century, it was widespread across the Roman Empire from Britain to North Africa to the Black Sea to Syria, but by the fifth century, it fizzled out and disappeared. But before I go any further, it’s important to say that the cult of Mithras was a new religious movement under the Roman Empire. This is a little confusing because the god himself, Mithras, is based on an old Indo-Iranian deity by the name Mitra or Mithra who predated the cult of Mithras by hundreds of years. The name Mithras is simply the Hellenized form of this god. Evidence from North India and Iran shows that this god Mitra dates at least to the second millennium BCE, and the worship of Mitra stuck around for centuries. By the fifth century BCE, the Persians were worshiping him as the god of the sun, and in the dualistic religion of Zoroastrianism, Mitra was a god of light, waging an eternal war with darkness. The Roman historian Strabo knew this association, reporting that Mitra is the Persian’s name for the sun. Because of this association with the old Indo-Iranian deity Mitra, scholars in the early 20th century just assumed that the cult of Mithras was an old Persian religion transplanted into the Roman Empire by soldiers returning from battles in the near east. The historian Franz Cumont was the champion of this position. He was convinced that the Romans directly lifted elements of their theology from Iranian theology. So he studied ancient Zoroastrian text to try to shed light on the gaps of evidence that we had for the Roman cult of Mithras. But the problem is, what we know about the Roman cult doesn’t have any antecedent in Iranian religion. So scholars today try to downplay this theory that there was a direct line of influence from the east. Manfred Clauss, one of the premier scholars of this field, says it best: So yes, initiates of Mithras in the Roman Empire did worship a god inspired by a Persian god. And they did use some Persian words in their worship. But we are really dealing with a Roman religion here, and we should treat it as such. So let’s get into the evidence. And here is where it gets a little more tricky. We have zero writings from people who worshiped Mithras in the Roman Empire. No narratives, no mythologies or origin stories or theologies. No writings of any kind. Anyone who says otherwise is either mistaken, or they are referring to older Persian texts, which as I said earlier, might not have had any influence at all in the Roman Mithras cult. Aside from a few mentions in Roman historians like Strabo and Porphyry and a few highly polemical bits from Christian writers like Justin Martyr, the only evidence we have for the Roman Mithras cult is archaeology. Inscriptions, mosaics, sculptures, and the acutal meeting places where Mithraic initiates gathered, called Mithraea. Archaeologists have found these underground meeting places all over the Mediterranean showing how widespread this religion really was. Mithraea are not all the same, but they do share general characteristics. They are narrow, rectangular meeting rooms often built underground with vaulted ceilings. And they’re fairly small, most measuring only ten meters long. And these meeting rooms were meant to facilitate one of the central rituals of the Mithras cult: the ritual meal. Ritualized dining was a common feature in late Roman religion. One example that comes to mind is Christianity with the Eucharist. And in fact, some Christian writers thought that the Mithraic meal was a demonic parody of the Christian Eucharist. This famous example from Bosnia depicts Mithraic initiates drinking around a table with a plate of bread. And every Mithraim would have displayed an image of Mithras at the head of the room, which Manfred Clauss interprets as Mithras being the host of the meal. And what is striking about this image is just how universal it was. It’s been found all over the Mediterranean without much deviation in style. A scene depicting Mithras slaying a bull, yanking its head up while Mithras turns, looking over his shoulder. He also frequently appears with a snake, a dog, a raven, and a scorpion as he stabs the bull. Now, there’s absolutely no evidence that the Mithraic initiates actually practiced bull-slaying. But this must have represented some sort of foundational story in Mithraic mythology. But the long and the short of it is, we just don’t know. Remember, we don’t have any sort of narratives or mythologies from worshipers of Mithras in the Roman Empire. So we’re left trying to piece together the myth from incomplete evidence. Franz Cumont thought it represented some sort of Zoroastrian cosmological myth, but later scholars interpret it as an astrological myth. Astrological interpretations make a lot of sense because a lot of Mithraea have astrological imagery. The Mithraem of the Seven Spheres in Ostia for example portray zodiac symbols along the benches, and some scholars think initiates considered Mithraea as a microcosm of the universe. But let’s turn to the organizational structure of the cult of Mithras. I’ve been using the word ‘initiates’ to describe these people in the most literal sense, because the Mithras cult was an initiation cult, meaning that you had to perform a series of rituals to get into the club. Once you were initiated, you would go through a series of levels or grades. The Christian writer St. Jerome says that there were seven grades, which seems to be corroborated by the mosaic floor decorations of a Mithraem in Ostia near Rome. You start at the bottom rung of the latter at the raven level, going up through the bridegroom, soldier, lion, Persian, runner of the sun, and father levels. What is interesting though is that only male names appear in the inscriptions dedicated by worshipers of Mithras. This implies that women were not allowed to join. And it seems to have been really popular within the Roman army. Lots of inscriptions seem to come from military men. Another inscription discovered under the church of St. Stefano Rotondo in Rome was dedicated by two guys, one who was the priest of the local military barracks in Rome, and another who was a member of the Equites class; a low-ranking aristocrat. But inscriptions throughout the Roman Empire shows that men from all walks of life would join the cult. We have names from Roman politicians, merchants, and even slaves. But don’t go thinking this wasn’t an egalitarian cult. Even though slaves could become initiates, there is no evidence that they rose very far in the ranks. The mid-rank lion seems to be one of the most popular ranks, suggesting that very few people went beyond this. And social superiors like a centurion, for example, wouldn’t allow a lowly soldier to be above him in the Mithraic hierarchy. So even though this grading system was innovative, it really only served to reinforce the highly stratified Roman society. We don’t know much else about the rituals that you would have needed to perform to go through the grading system, either. These rituals by and large were kept secret by Mithraic initiates. And this is one reason why scholars sometimes use the word “mystery cult” to describe Mithras worship in the Roman Empire. And there were several mystery cults in the Roman Empire, including worshipers of Isis and the cult of Magna Mater. But the term “mystery cult” shouldn’t make you think that the cult of Mithras was somehow hidden from society. In fact, some Mithraea are found in public buildings. There is a large Mithraem located in the Baths of Caracalla, a public bath house in Rome, and another in Crypta Balbi, a large apartment complex in Rome. So if you are a neighbor to the Baths of Caracalla, you probably had some sort of idea what was going on inside of there, and maybe you even knew somebody who attended the ritual meals there. So yes, even though the cult of Mithras was a mystery cult, the secrecy probably only went so far. So now that you hopefully have a basic understanding of the cult of Mithras, what was its relationship with Christianity? Remember, both Christianity and the Mithras cult were thriving sometime in the first century CE. But this fact has kind of let people’s imaginations run wild, so let’s start with dispatching the myths that Bill Maher mentioned earlier in the episode. First of all, the claim that Mithras had a virgin birth just like Jesus. Remember, we have no texts from worshipers of Mithras. So we don’t have any sort of narrative or myth, like the birth of Jesus in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. However, what we do have are sculptures depicting Mithras being born from a rock. All of these portray him holding a torch and a dagger. We don’t exactly know the myth that corresponds to this rock-born motif, but it’s definitely a stretch to say Mithras was born of a virgin like how the gospels describe Jesus’ birth. I’ve never really thought of a rock being virginal. Or the idea that Mithras had twelve disciples. Well, Mithras does appear with the zodiac symbols, but it’s kind of a stretch to call these disciples. I would sooner say this is evidence that Mithraic initiates thought of Mithras in astrological terms. Others claim that Mithras died on a cross, celebrated a last supper, or was visited by Magi. Again, none of these come from any ancient source, and we have no archaeological evidence that backs up these claims. All of these claims come from non-scholarly writers in the 18th and 19th centuries which have persisted as rumors for decades. A guy named Godfrey Higgins in 1836 for example claims that Mithras had 12 disciples, like Jesus, but provides no sources. The American author T.W. Doane wrote in the late 1800’s that Mithras was visited by Magi carrying gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Again, citing absolutely no sources and seemingly pulling these notions out of his own imagination. So to cut to the chase, the claim that Jesus and Mithras are cut from the same mythological cloth are from 18th and 19th century pseudo-historians, and have no basis in any ancient source or archaeological evidence. If you don’t believe me, I have citations in the descriptions below, and I highly encourage you to go read them for yourself. These 200-year-old rumors continue to persist because no one bothers to check the historical sources. If you go study the archaeology of the cult of Mithras, none of these claims hold water. The only one of these claims that’s sort of based in reality is the claim that Jesus and Mithras both were thought to have a birthday on December 25th. It’s true that the emperor Aurelian declared December 25th as a holiday for Sol Invictus, the unconquered sun god in the third century. And it’s true that some thought of Mithras as a god of the sun, and even referred to him as Invictus. But if anything, this just tells us about how different religious groups in the Roman Empire were fighting over December 25th as an important day. Or how Christian authorities tried to appropriate December 25th for their own religion. This doesn’t really tell us anything about a shared mythological origin story for Jesus Christ and Mithras. So now that we have those misconceptions out of the way, what do we really know about the relationship between Christianity and the cult of Mithras? Well, they do share some similarities, which is to be expected. They both started in the Roman Empire, and therefore share similar cultural influences that we see in Roman religion, like meeting together in small places to share a ritual meal. Like I said earlier, ritual dining was a common practice among all sorts of Roman cults. So even though Justin Martyr definitely thought the Mithraic initiates were engaging in a demonic parody of the Eucharist, Christians and Mithras worshipers weren’t really copying each other. They were just doing what everyone else was doing in the Roman Empire. And there were probably differences. The theological significance of the Eucharist was almost certainly different from the significance of the Mithraic meals. And both religions regularly met with their co-religionists in small buildings. The small Roman garrison town of Dura-Europos for example had a Christian house church of sorts right down the street from a Mithraem. But some of the interactions between Christianity and the cult of Mithras were antagonistic. Like I said, Christian authors like Justin Martyr and Tertullian thought the cult of Mithras was demonic. And some Christians went so far as to destroy Mithraea. The Mithraem in the Syrian village of Hawarte for example has Christian graffiti scratched on the walls and a Christian church built on top of it. So the theory is that some sort of religious vandalism must have happened shortly before or shortly after the Mithraem went out of use. Occasionally, you’ll find Mithraic images that have been defaced, suggesting again some sort of vandalism from Christians, such as the Mithraem under the church of Santa Prisca in Rome. By the fourth century, more and more Mithraea were abandoned and fewer and fewer new ones were being built. This has been interpreted as the decline of the cult of Mithras. But why? The scholar and archaeologist of the cult of Mithras, David Walsh, thinks that there must have been some sort of combination of factors. By the fourth century, Christianity was well on its way to being the dominant religion. Following emperor Constantine, Christianity gained powerful patrons in the imperial government that Mithras worshipers just couldn’t match. Many worshipers of Mithras were probably converted to Christianty. And it’s also possible that they suffered some sort of backlash for worshiping a Persian god during a time when the Roman Empire was at war with Persia. Worshiping a Persian god probably was unpopular when your eastern border was under attack. Dr. Walsh also poses the theory that barbarian tribes destroyed many Mithraea since a lot of them were in settlements on the frontiers, outside of the late Roman defenses. And finally, it’s possible that worshipers of Mithras just lost interest. Some Mithraea are found completely intact. No evidence of destruction, people just abandoned the site. So David Walsh concludes that there is no single explanation as to why numerous Mithraea were abandoned during the fourth century. The combined effects of invasions, Christian vandalism, the imperial government starting to favor Christianty, and Mithraic groups losing interest all might have contributed to the religion’s decline. But nevertheless, the Cult of Mithras remains one of the most interesting religions in the ancient Mediterranean. If you’d like to learn more, go check out the archaeological evidence for yourself, and if you ever meet somebody with some weird theories about the Mithras cult, send them this video. As always, thanks for watching. The bulk of this research came from Manfred Clauss’ indispensable book, “The Roman Cult of Mithras,” with some aditional information from Roger Beck’s “The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire.” I highly recommend you check them out. Clauss’ book in particular is very readable for a popular audience. The archaeologist of the Roman Mithras cult, David Walsh, also graciously shared a copy of his dissertation with me and read over early drafts of this research, so thank you so much, David. As always, if you’d like to support the show, head on over to Patreon and help donate to keep this channel alive. As always, thanks for watching, and see you next time.

100 Replies to “Cult of Mithras Explained”

  1. So do the Hindus worship the cow because of the mushrooms that come from its dung?
    Could the "ritual meal" have involved the type of potions that witch doctors, medecibe men, shaman have used to go into a visionary healing ttance?
    It looked like mother's cap was the shape of a magic mushroom , too.

  2. I have to agree with the people that say this is probably ancient Masonry. Probably the first form of Free Masons.

  3. Thats how Christians have always done things..destroy everything. Religion is a parasite and the Abrahamic religion is the worst of them all.

  4. Well I’m Persian and I can assure you that Mitra was indeed born on December 25, as that month is infact named after this goddess even in the modern Iranian calendar under the Islamic Republic. We still celebrate her birthday in a celebration called Mehregan.

  5. I don't believe in god. However, I love intellectual honesty and research. Zoroaster, Horus, Mithra, Buddha, etc… bear absolutely 0 resemblance to Jesus.

  6. Just like Christianity the cult of Mithras were Sun worshipers that start with Virgo or the virgin and end with Leo the lion, the life of Christ. The Zodiac was a form of allegory used instead of written guideline of your psyche. The twelve tribes, the twelve disciples were allegorical or a form of parable to tell the meanings of the Zodiac. Exactly how Jesus taught in the Bible.

  7. I get the idea that Romans treated religion like a customizable fad like self-help movements, dance crazes, and fong dou parties.

  8. I cannot understand why Christians, etc., don't realize we live because of our Sun. If the Sun would go away tomorrow, we all would die pretty quickly. Like it or not, we are sun worshippers. I cannot understand why this is a bad thing. Okay, have your Jesus or whomever, but what if the Sun just went away? Face facts.

  9. Those who actually followed Mithras are one set, but we moderns with a near exhaustive view of faiths around the world are another. Moderns have to deal squarely with the theology and practice of Judaism and Christianity. We don't have the excuse of not knowing. Neither did C. S. Lewis when he most reluctantly yielded to an inescapable conviction that there was something real behind it all.

  10. The cult of heliocentrism is thriving in the modern world. This sun worship cult is promoted by Hollywood through science fantasy films such as STAR WARS. Adherents usually adorn their walls with idolatrous images of far away planets with multiple suns thus promoting the false heliocentric universe. Most worshipers have no idea that heliocentrism is a false religion based upon the occult sun worship ideas of ancient mystic Hermes Trismegistus. When confronted with overwhelming Bible evidence of our geocentric realty, those deceived by this insidious false god will defend their faith to the bitter end.

  11. Awesome video!! I am excited to have found your channel!! Looking forward to watching more of your videos!! 💖 💖

  12. Awesome video!! I am excited to have found your channel!! Looking forward to watching more of your videos!! 💖 💖

  13. The antecedents of Greco-Roman religion lie in the Canaanite pantheon. El was the head god and Ashera was his wife. Notice the similarity between As-Hera and Hera, the wife of Zeus? The family of El (also known as Ba’el, or Father El) was called the “Elohim”. And Yahweh was originally one of the sons of El and originally was the local patron deity of southern Canaan; i.e., Israel. El is also the same god worshipped by Muslims, now known as Al’lah.

  14. For all who think that the religion of Mithras was merely a men's club ala the Masons, it is highly doubtful that over 2000 years ago people had the same hobbies they do today or the same leisure time. If there were levels, there had to be learning, if there was learning there had to be a belief system. The sad reality is that the Christians destroyed all of the Mithraic writings as they were won't to do with anything that did not comport with their own version of a sacred religion. That's why we know very little about this religion.

  15. In my opinion, if there is only one similarity between Jesus and Mithra, Horus, or Zeus, then that would make the Jesus story skeptical.   There are similarities between Jesus and these ancient messiahs.

  16. So, explain why Horus also shares the similarities of Jesus (Yeshua) and Mithra. Also, Buddah, And every other Solar Personification also shares the Horus Aspect. But, yeah, if you haven't studied the Ancient Mysteries in great depth, you might not know that.

  17. The killing of the bull was a common motif in Mediterranean astrological mythology, and still is today in Spain with the bullfighting. It had to do with the changing of the ages from age of Taurus to the age of Aries, which was more than 4000 years ago, which was represented by the killing of the bull. Perhaps a way of representing the age of the god or man who Mithras was based on

  18. The true mystery was which god all these cults actually worshipped. That would be satan aka lucifer the light bearer. Symbolized by the sun…

  19. American pronounciation errors: There is no "th" except in english language. Mithras is not english in origin. Therefore, it should be pronounced as "Mitras"

  20. You would be best served to read this article, which answers and disputes the many inaccurate claims made by this Messiah College graduate. Basically, he doesn't know what he is talking about. He should take his own advice and leave this material to the experienced professionals. He is merely espousing what seems to be the Christian apologist line.
    Mithra: The Pagan Christ
    "Nor is it likely that the Roman Mithras is not essentially the same as the Indian sun god Mitra and the Persian, Armenian and Phrygian Mithra in his major attributes, as well as some of his most pertinent rites.

    Moreover, it is erroneously asserted that because Mithraism was a "mystery cult" it did not leave any written record. In reality, much evidence of Mithra worship has been destroyed, including not only monuments, iconography and other artifacts, but also numerous books by ancient authors. The existence of written evidence is indicated by the Egyptian cloth "manuscript" from the first century BCE called, "Mummy Funerary Inscription of the Priest of Mithras, Ornouphios, Son fo Artemis" or MS 247.

    As previously noted, two of the ancient writers on Mithraism are Pallas, and Eubulus, the latter of whom, according to Jerome (Against Jovinianus, 2.14; Schaff 397), "wrote the history of Mithras in many volumes." Discussing Eubulus and Pallas, Porphyry too related that there were "several elaborate treatises setting forth the religion of Mithra." The writings of the early Church fathers themselves provide much evidence as to what Mithraism was all about, as do the archaeological artifacts stretching from India to Scotland.

    These many written volumes doubtlessly contained much interesting information that was damaging to Christianity, such as the important correspondences between the "lives" of Mithra and Jesus, as well as identical symbols such as the cross, and rites such as baptism and the eucharist. In fact, Mithraism was so similar to Christianity that it gave fits to the early Church fathers, as it does to this day to apologists, who attempt both to deny the similarities and yet to claim that these (non-existent) correspondences were plagiarized by Mithraism from Christianity."
    http://www.truthbeknown.com/mithra.htm

  21. Actually Mithra is routinely referred to as a Persian god, which is not completely true either. Mithra was well known in Hinduism and the pantheon of Hindu gods, but had a lesser stature among them. Mithra’s popularity grew in Persia and afte the conquest of the Middle and Near east by Alexander the Great, Mithraic religions — along with a horde of other “mystery” cults — poured into the Mediterranean world and thus changed, mixed, cavorted with, blended, rose and fell, until just a few were left that really began catching on in Rome. At one point, a Roman could go to a single “temple” that accommodated the be;kegs in Hercules, Mithra, and even..Jesus. Ironically this was also a similar case in Syria — of all places — right up to recent years where Jews, Muslims, and Christians maintained their faiths in the SAME house of worship……Funny how that unity has been utterly destroyed in favor of factionalism and violent division……Anyhoo…

  22. I heard of this from my guru Shri Shri Samaveda Shanmukha Satri Garu, Said Its god of sun, so happy to heard as per Veda said, it's everywhere around world before some unidentified religious shows domination,luckily I'm in right path of truth, I don't care of non believers on judgement day they will see, DHARMO RAKSHATI RAKSHITHA:

  23. I don't know how much the speaker knows but he seems clueless. Mithra is Iranian and even his cloths are Iranians. He is wearing trousers and that is Iranian. Romans wore skirts. If his name and cloths are Iranians then he is iranic in origin with some local modifications. Also the virgin birth, the evergreen tree, the gifts and much more are the same as Mithra rituals.

  24. So you're basically saying that absence of evidence is evidence of absence? I do generally agree that people have to prove their claims, but that's going to be neigh impossible for any initiation cult that succeeds in keeping its initiation secrets. If you don't know, say you don't know, don't pretend you do know people who claim otherwise are wrong because then the burden of disproving them lies with you. This is where your video fails: you simply don't disprove their claims but just demonstrate that we don't know very much about the religion because as far as we know nobody betrayed it and wrote down its initiation secrets.

  25. They are not using the Roman mithras to identify with the same christ, anyway all of them do represent the sun, the secrets they sharing is as above so below, what happens in the heavens are repeated in the earth/society/people/our bodies. The universal code is in everything, hence "God" is all around and inside of us, Heaven is inside of us…because our anatomy resembles the celestrial bodies, these are the secrets that all of them were talking about but in riddles/metaphors etc.

  26. By altering history you won’t get anywhere! There are just enough evidence for:
    Mithraism was an Iranian religion brought into Europe mostly by semi pastoralist Scythian branch of Iranic tribes and also the Persians to from Germanic tribes down to Roman military and then people whom became Mithraist. In case of Roman military: their contacts, cooperation, and confrontations with the Iranic world and Irano-Hellenic Mithraic navy in the black sea and Mediterraneans!
    Later in 2nd AD, the Roman emperor, absolutely for political purposes, made christianity the official enforced state religion borrowing some principal elements and traditions from Mithraism!
    How ridiculous it is when you say: “initiates of Mithras in the Roman Empire did worship a god inspired by Persian god, Mithra, using Persian words to worship the goddess of light, Mithra, but it’s a Roman religion” LOL and HOW IGNORANT!
    You are full of agenda trying to alter the history while evidence are clear!

  27. CHRISTIANITY WASN'T A RELIGION AT ALL IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE, THEY DID FOLLOW MITRA SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL.
    MITHRAS COMES FROM IRAN WHO COME FROM THE ARIANS.

  28. Dude get out of here… Did you get to this conclusions while you were having a poop and reading Wikipedia? Because this is exactly what I would do if I were to make a weak and misleading content. and where are your evidences? Go to marketing or business career and leave the history alone.

  29. I have always wished to know more about religions. Thank you for being such a credible source of that information. You present a rare commodity to this age.

  30. Atheists: "We beleive in science not religion but we do blindly beleive in pseudo-historical writters from the XVIIIth century"

  31. Jesus is no different from the other mythical gods before him. There's no evidence of him outside of the bible. The four gospels were written decades after Jesus supposedly died, so there's no way the writers could have been his disciples or eye witnesses. He is a Sun god.

  32. 4:35 , Although Romans did worship a god inspired by a Persian god and they did use some Persian words in their worship , but that was a totally Roman religion not Persian !
    come on dude ! lol

  33. Christianity is a business, god equals money ask the RC and Pentecostals, of course Christian scholars incorporate successful themes?

  34. Mithras became Christanity they both are the same cult, as one is superimposed upon the other in all the early roman bibles, and later evolved into full blown Catholicism, as Mithras was resurrected as Jesus Christ, the new face of the Bright and Morning Star which is our SUN. Total Idolatry in its purest form in both cases, just two faces on the same coin.

  35. "One of the premier scholar of the field" "Manfred Clauss??!! Not much information on the web on that man, do you have any articles about him.

  36. Mithraism didnt just suddenly vanish. Emperor Theodosius 1 anti-pagan decrees had much to do with the destruction of the pagan religions in late 4th century, which explains the decline of all Roman paganism during the 5th century.

  37. This video is false. Bill Maher was right. If you're interested in the truth, search on YouTube for "Comparative Mythology: Jesus, Mithras and Osiris". Unlike this guy on YouTube who relies on two books written by biased Christian authors, real experts explore the facts of Mithras in a history documentary and visit actually archaeological sites and more. Jesus is just another mythology character among thousands from history.

  38. Im a guy who doesnt really believe in coincidence I mean…sure maybe in everday life….but generally no coincidences in history of nations and their religious beliefs and I think with religions is not really that people just up and get bored of their only grasp of a view on life and the world its kind of important they probably werent just role playing from day to day, lets look at umm Iran for example, I love all people and I try to keep any kind of jugement out of my heart when I study people and their beliefs, I respect humanity and faith, however I dont know if thats entirely true with the most high, will he respect it? I say this as a Christian believer of course, so ok lets go to iran, their religion is islamic as a nation cool simple, whole nation islam. Thats very simple nothing unusual about iran other than the fighting and all that stuff you know its a little more heated in the middle east than most places as far as violence and warfare go and thats not entirely due to islamic traditions or iranian people. Its human being doing what they do trying to survive, and just exist and be respected who wouldnt be able to understand that. But there has been times you know in their history where theyve just been so tired of dealing with Israel for whatever reason or other, mostly land rights I suppose and retaliations bc of on going historical conflict between israel and the surrounding nations, but it seems like iran, and I guess syria always have conflicted with israel, and you could debate that all day but you know I think thats the way the world sees it I think and thats the way it looks to me, but say all that to say this I often wonder what iran would be without israel ever existing, and what israel would have looked out without all its neighbors being enemies instead of the types who bring a basket when you move in, of course you can say all day in irans defense and the other nations, the israeli military have been aggressive and thats a fact too, or they do things to antagonize, all that stuff gets deep quick, but if you could imagine a world without one or the other what would it be like, sometimes it seems like either of them are ready to just set it off, and yet they somehow manage to just bicker back and forth without armageddon and jihad poppin off and getting an end result and I know those nations have warred and went back and forth in the past in serious combat, but I just think throughout most historical conflicts globally two enemies its unusual for a serious conflict to have gone on as long as israel vs islamic nations. or whatever however you like to say it went you know. Generally nations go to war and terrible things always happen and then they reach some sort of resolution or something after one side must lose and one must overcome and then merge or whatever all types of things have happened considering forming of nations and what not.Say all that to say this theres probably a reason behind the ongoing of it, and theres probably a reason knows much about romans religious origins, and why they would have dropped the original national faith of rome italy, whatever that was, it wasnt catholic because catholic was formed right after the life of jesus Id say thats what sparked everyone to scramble for their translations in the group of these 3 who translated the Bible from hebrew to latin and greek, seemed the bible was a serious subject for these 2 other nations aside from israel, because they interpreted it asap, and they were involved directly in the cruxifiction of Jesus Christ and his story Id say. for a catholic faith, and why the greek did the same with their core religious values, I mean Idk at what point but both of those two nations changed their beliefs entirely, and only once, iran, syria havent done something like that I dont think, maybe egypt has also, the funny thing is I know if an egptian responded to that he would say no that I am completely wrong because he still holds alot of his core beliefs its just not like it was during the time of the pharohs or something like that you know and the sad thing is alot of times you have people go to new faiths, like covert to Christianity for example entire nations covert and they get high up into a teaching or leading position and still hold their old traditions, even though theyve converted and they try to mash it all up.You know you have to be able to separate fact from fiction though if youre thinking about conversion, it isnt a pool match its your world view and religious values….you dont just convert then think to yourself, you know…my old beliefs were kind of nice compared to christian beliefs and practices, my old view was convienent you know…but I like the people in the christian faith or something, so they just try to do both and if whole nations do that, thats when the it gets dangerous and deceptive, and its been done like that in the past and you get these kind of problems happened in two nations which are present pretty clearly

  39. Claims about similarities with Jesus are spreading about som many different gods. And when you check it, it's just not there… Maybe some just want to "disqualify" Jesus or something.

  40. Mithras sounds like Satan up to his old tricks of fomenting confusion once again. Too many ideological contradictions with the Angra Mainyu spirit of destruction having as much power as Ahura Mazda, with the latter requiring the help of humans. It's a mess. Not Lucifer's finest effort, this Zoroastrianism/Mithras nonsense. Nothing like the fallen angel's masterwork, the Roman Catholic Church, anyway.

  41. It i said Oxford (University, UK) was built near a tributary running into the Thames where a major Mithras shrine once existed. A place where Mithra wrestled the bull of ignorance. Like Aphrodite shaking her spear at ignorance. Constantine needed religious coherence in a deeply divided empire. The two councils of Nicea managed to incorporate both religions under a new super adherence called Christianity.

  42. Mithras is alive and well…The Jesuit Georgorian Calender of December 25th and ALL Sun Solcice (Spring, Summer, Fall Winter) are all apart of their Luciferian Vatican NEW WORLD ORDER!….The return of BAAL WORSHIP!

  43. You are completely misinformed, mixing apples and oranges. Mithraism IS NOT Zoroastrianism! It's another religion. There were dozens of different religion/cults in Persia. The word "Mithra" (or Mehr) in ancient Iran means pact and love and was used in other Iranian religions, and in Zoroastrianism but it is not the God because Zoroastrianism believes in ONE GOD!
    And secondly, Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion. It's not "dualistic!" God is Ormazd and there are demons and angels.

  44. I am a son of Earth and starry Heaven. I am thirsty, please give me something to drink from the fountain of memory.

  45. This man here rambled for a lot of time and presented nothing of substance to corroborate his claims.. He totally debunked everything of similarities between the Mithra cult and the Christian cult..

    ABSOLUTELY NOTHING!!

    Show evidence if you're going to make such presumptuous content.

    Ask him to tell me why the Vatican has over 5 miles of shelves with ancient books and texts in their underground library that the public CANNOT be privy and only a select few cab visit?

    What are they hiding?

  46. Porphyry in his on the cave of the nymphs talks about the Mithras cult and associates it with Zoroaster. a lot of what he says lines up with most the stuff in this video. Id imagine that that is where a lot of people got the idea historically if there really is nothing else but Christians arguing against it. Porphyry sure isn't talkin bad about it. Maybe his interpretation or understanding isn't perfect, but considering it sounds like his description was otherwise confirmed by evidence and he lived while it was popular, it seems odd to out right dismiss him.

  47. coming out of a rock is a symbolic way of showing that Mithra came out of nothing or barren and impossible conditions, and 12 disciples of Mithra have an astrological explanation that refers to 12 months of a year and the solar system.

  48. Nice Analysis but don't call Mitra as sole Persian god but better to say Indo-Iranian archaic god. The Vedas predates the Avesta, where Mitra is one of the major gods. The tablet of the Treaty between Hitti and Mittani empires( both now in modern Turkey) mentions Vedic gods like Indra, Varuna, Nasatya, including Mitra. The tablet has been dated 1380 BC old. Here interesting to know that Indra is Asur slayer but Zoroastrians worship Ahurmazda. (God of wisdom). Indra is just like Zeus (Deus) and Thor whose is divine Thundervolt. Vedism, Buddhism and Jainism all differentiate Sura (god spirt, deus) from Asura (bad spirit, Danava). Can we relate with Syria and Assyria? Any way, Mitra becomes Metriya in Buddhism, the future Buddha. Indo-Greek diaspora seems to adopt Mitra along side of the local gods and Buddhism in the 2nd century BCE.

  49. Mithraism is older than that. It was the main religion in Persia. In fact a lot is known of it. Roman Catholicism is almost identical.

  50. Bill Maher knows it's BS. He intentionally misleads people. He knows exactly what he is doing. Great video though!

  51. It may be, as Mr. Henry says, I have been duped by 19th century writers (whose books I obtained for free from Gutengerg.org – if anyone is interested in reading them), but my information is not derived soley from century old texts. It has long been my understanding that "The Mysteries" was a name given by Romans to a group of ancient Ressurection Cults – of which Mithras was one. The ressurection aspect would be a significant commonality between the two religions. It is also my understanding that Mithraism was adopted by the Roman military around 70 BCE. Military that occupied Palestine where ideas could have been easily borrowed and reworked in the decades before the advent of Christianity.
    Even if Mr. Henry were completely accurate in his claims here, that does not mean there were no plagerized aspcets of Christianity. Ressurection cults were around long before Christ. Justin Martyr, Who Mr. Henry cites multiple times, said in a letter to Cesaer, "“When we say that Jesus was born of a virgin, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into Heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those who you esteem Sons of Jupiter.” Martyr also lists several ancient deities as being analgous to Jesus.
    And, I might add, the lack of Mythraic writings can be laid at the feet of Christianity. The Christians have a long history of banning and burning any books that don't fit their scripture, or questions its provenance.

  52. Spose it kinda sounds roman….

    Like,
    Roman around lost in a desert, getting all pagan and such. . .
    ALWAYS, talk about how all else is related & influenced, but never your own people's historically.

    None, and not ever.

  53. December 25th was used to remember the birth of Christ by the Catholic church as this time has pagan and other religious holidays. It's more in line with historical events 5jat Jesus was born around September.

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