Africa and the Bible Part 3.

Africa and the Bible Part 3.


IS CHRISTIANITY A
WHITE MAN’S RELIGION? AND SHOULD WE BE LOOKING
ELSEWHERE FOR OUR FAITH? THAT’S AN IMPORTANT QUESTION,
AND YOU MAY BE SURPRISED… WHAT A JOURNEY BACK BEFORE THE
DAYS OF SLAVERY REVEALS ABOUT
THE FAITH OF OUR FOREFATHERS. AS YOU’LL SEE, THE FAITH OF
OUR AFRICAN FATHERS GOES BACK… TO THE VERY FIRST
FOLLOWERS OF JESUS CHRIST. IS THE CHRISTIAN FAITH
THE WHITE MAN’S RELIGION? …NEXT ON DAY OF DISCOVERY. HELLO, I’M WINTLEY PHIPPS. FOR MANY PEOPLE OF COLOR, THE
CHRISTIAN FAITH IS A FAITH
THAT CAME WITH SHACKLES. THE CONGREGATION OF THIS
CHURCH, BUILT IN 1850, WAS
MADE UP OF FORMER SLAVES, BUT TODAY, FOR MANY OF AFRICAN
DESCENT, THE STAINED GLASS OF
CHURCHES REFLECT A STAINED PAST, A PAST STAINED WITH THEIR
SWEAT AND BLOOD… WRUNG OUT BY THOSE OF THE
SO-CALLED WHITE MAN’S RELIGION. ♪ NOBODY KNOWS THE
TROUBLE I’VE SEEN… ♪ WINTLEY: OUR SONGS OF SLAVERY
WERE OUR BELOVED SPIRITUALS. ONE GREAT WRITER ONCE
CALLED THE SLAVES’ MUSICAL
EXPRESSION OF FAITH… “A DISTURBING KIND OF JOY,” BECAUSE, AS A SLAVE, HOW DO
YOU EMBRACE THE FAITH OF THE
ONE WHO HAS CHAINED YOU, AND THEN FIND IN THAT FAITH
ONE’S HIGHEST EXPRESSION OF JOY? EVEN TODAY, MANY OF AFRICAN
DESCENT STILL FEEL SHACKLED,
AS THEY SEE IT, TO A WHITE MAN’S FAITH. IS THE CHRISTIAN FAITH
THE WHITE MAN’S RELIGION? DESMOND ARMSTRONG WANTED
TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE
ROOTS OF HIS FAITH. DESMOND IS A FORMER OLYMPIC
AND WORLD CUP SOCCER PLAYER. TODAY HE’S THE FATHER
OF SIX CHILDREN, AND HE WANTED THEM TO KNOW WHY
THEY ARE A CHRISTIAN FAMILY, WHY THEY FOLLOW JESUS
AND HIS TEACHING, AND SO HE BEGAN A
JOURNEY TO UNDERSTAND
HIS SPIRITUAL HERITAGE. I KIND OF STUMBLED
ON THE FACT THAT, YOU KNOW,
AFRICA AND THE BIBLE, I KNEW THERE WAS SOMETHING
GOING ON IN THE BIBLE, IN REGARDS TO AFRICA BEING
PRESENT IN THE BIBLE, BUT YOU NEVER HEAR THAT.
YOU NEVER SEE IT ANY PLACE, AND IT NEVER HAD A REAL,
REAL CONNECTION TO IT. AND SO I WANTED SOMETHING THAT
REALLY TOLD ME, LOOK, THAT’S NOT
THE ONLY THING ABOUT MY FAITH. IT DIDN’T JUST START HERE
ON THE SHORES OF AMERICA. IT
STARTED WAY BACK IN AFRICA. WINTLEY: DESMOND STUDIED
HIS BIBLE AND OTHER BOOKS. THEN HE ALSO DECIDED
TO VISIT A CLASS, A CLASS HELD IN BOSTON,
AT THE CENTER OF URBAN
MINISTERIAL EDUCATION, AN EXTENSION OF GORDON CONWELL
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. THE CLASS WAS MADE UP OF AN
ETHNICALLY DIVERSE GROUP OF
GRADUATE STUDENTS, LAYPERSONS, AND CLERGY. THE TITLE OF THE COURSE PIQUED
DESMOND’S INTEREST, “AFRICA AND
GREAT AFRICANS IN THE BIBLE.” HIS ONLY RESERVATION WAS ITS
TEACHER, WHO BY ALL APPEARANCES, WAS A MOST UNLIKELY SOURCE OF
INFORMATION ON BLACK HISTORY, DR. CATHERINE KROEGER. ONE OF THE IMPORTANT
FIGURES OF NORTH AFRICA… WAS THE BISHOP OF CARTHAGE. HIS NAME WAS QUODVULTDEUS.
THAT MEANS, “WHAT GOD WILLS”. AND HE WAS A COLLEAGUE
OF ST. AUGUSTINE. AND HERE WE SEE A
PICTURE OF QUODVULTDEUS, HOWEVER HE CAN ALSO
BE SEEN, WITH HIS BLACK
SKIN, WHERE HE IS BURIED, AND THE MOSAIC OVER SHOWS THAT
HE CLEARLY HAS DARK SKIN, IN THE SAN GENNARO
CATACOMB IN NAPLES. SHE WAS DEEP. SHE HAD
HER HISTORY DOWN. SHE HAD A PASSION,
EVEN AT HER AGE. SHE WAS PASSIONATE. I MEAN, I FELT LIKE, I
NEED TO GET ON THE BALL, BECAUSE THIS WOMAN, SHE’S
GOT MORE ENERGY THAN I DO. WELL SIR, HE’S NOT DEAD
TONIGHT, HE’S ALIVE WITH
A ROUSING GOOD SERMON… FOR ALL YOU SINNERS WHO WANT
TO FIND JESUS, FROM 450 A.D. YOU WHO FIND YOURSELF BEFORE
ME THIS DAY, KNOW THIS, THAT THE WORDS OF MY MOUTH COME
FORTH WITH THE POWER OF GOD… WINTLEY: PRESENTING THE ANCIENT
SERMON IN PERIOD COSTUME
IS A STUDENT NAMED MARK, WHO’S ALSO A PASTOR. HERE THE POOR ARE NOT TREATED
ONE WAY, THE RICH ANOTHER, THE MASTER ONE WAY,
THE SLAVE ANOTHER. FOR THERE IS ONE ENTRANCE
FOR ALL INTO LIFE, AND IF THIS RITUAL
EGALITARIANISM IS THE CASE IN
THIS FRAGILE AND MORTAL LIFE, HOW MUCH THE BETTER WILL IT
BE FOR THAT IMMORTAL AND
EVERLASTING LIFE! WINTLEY: NONE OF THE STUDENTS
MISS THE REAL MESSAGE. THEY HAVE JUST EXPERIENCED
A HANDSHAKE WITH A DISTANT
AFRICAN BROTHER, AND FOUND HIM TO BE NOBLE,
INSIGHTFUL AND COMPELLING. DR. KROEGER INVITED DESMOND TO
INTERACT WITH THE STUDENTS. DESMOND: ONE OF MY QUESTIONS TO
YOU IS THIS: AS I’VE STUDIED
BLACKS OR AFRICANS IN THE BIBLE, AND IT SPOKE TO ME
INDIVIDUALLY, I WANTED TO
FIND OUT FROM YOU ALL, HOW HAS THIS ENRICHED
YOUR LIVES? THE COURSE WORK THAT YOU HAVE
TAKEN HERE, WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO
YOU IN TERMS OF YOUR WORLDVIEW? YOU KNOW, I WAS EXPECTING
A BLACK PERSON… TO KNOW MORE ABOUT AFRICA,
TO TEACH THE COURSE, SO WHEN I CAME HERE,
AND I LOOKED AT DR. KROEGER, AND I SAID, “REALLY?” I JUST COULDN’T BELIEVE IT, AND YOU KNOW, WE HAVE
LEARNED SO MUCH IN THIS
CLASS, IT’S UNBELIEVABLE. AND THINGS I NEVER KNEW BEFORE. BECAUSE SINCE I WAS LIKE A
LITTLE GIRL, YOU KNOW, I WAS
TOLD THAT THE GOSPEL IS WHITE, EVEN WHEN YOU’RE TRYING
TO WITNESS TO LIKE,
MY BLACK PEOPLE, THEY ALWAYS SAID, THIS IS
A WHITE PEOPLE’S GOSPEL. IT’S GONNA TAKE MORE LIKE A
CLASS THAT WE HAVE HERE…
CLASSES LIKE WE HAVE HERE, WHERE PEOPLE CAN SEE THE
DYNAMIC UNFOLD GRADUALLY, BECAUSE TO SAY THIS ALL
IN ONE… EVEN IF, ONCE
YOU’RE SITTING HERE, TO RECEIVE IT ALL IN ONE SWOOP
WOULD STILL LEAVE YOU SPINNING, AND NOT REALLY ABLE
TO DIGEST IT. AND I WAS THINKING ABOUT
WHAT YOU SAID DESMOND, ABOUT
YOU KNOW, THE YOUTH TODAY. THEY DON’T KNOW WHO THEY ARE. AND IT’S ALMOST LIKE
THEY DON’T CARE EITHER. BUT THE YOUNG BLACK MEN
THAT ARE INCARCERATED, THEY DO TEND TO MIGRATE
TOWARD THE ISLAM RELIGION, BECAUSE THEY THINK THAT,
THEY BELIEVE THAT TO BE A
STRONG BLACK MAN IS TO BE… YOU KNOW, TO BECOME THE MUSLIM. MY SON WAS INCARCERATED,
AND HE WAS A… YOU KNOW, AND OF COURSE
I RAISED HIM UP CHRISTIAN, JUST LIKE THE REST
OF MY CHILDREN. AND THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN HE
TURNED TO THE “FIVE PRESENTERS”, AND I DIDN’T WANT TO ARGUE
BACK AND FORTH WITH HIM, BECAUSE THAT’S NOT THE WAY
THAT I PRESENT THE GOSPEL. BUT I DIDN’T HAVE THE
INFORMATION THAT I NEEDED… TO PRESENT THE GOSPEL WITH
HIM FROM THE AFRICAN SIDE, BUT HE WAS MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE
ABOUT ME, ABOUT MY…
ABOUT BLACK HISTORY, BUT I DIDN’T HAVE THE
CHRISTIAN… THE BLACK
CHRISTIAN FOUNDATION. DESMOND: I IDENTIFY WITH WHAT
YOU WERE SAYING EARLIER, IN REGARDS TO BEING
CONFRONTED WITH KNOWLEDGE
ABOUT MY OWN RELIGION… FROM SOMEONE WHO OPPOSES IT. AND I WAS STUMPED.
YOU KNOW, I’M STUMPED. YOU KNOW, HOW CAN I DEFEND
MY FAITH IF I DON’T HAVE
PROPER KNOWLEDGE? THAT’S WHY THIS IS SUCH AN
IMPORTANT COURSE AND THIS
TOPIC IS SO IMPORTANT, ESPECIALLY FOR ME, AS I GO INTO
THOSE AREAS IN WHICH I’M GOING
TO BE CONFRONTED… BY INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE
OPPOSED TO MY RELIGION, AND WHO ARE EXEMPLIFYING POWER
IN THE KNOWLEDGE THAT THEY HAVE AND THAT’S WHAT
DRAWS THE YOUNG BOYS. IT’S THE POWER AND THE
AUTHORITY BY WHICH THEY
SPEAK THAT CONNOTATES, “THIS IS TRUE.
I NEED TO BE HERE.” AND I CAN’T COME… I COULD NOT
COME AND COUNTER THAT. I COULD NOT GO PASSIONATELY WITH
MY OWN TRUTH FOR CHRISTIANITY, AND THEN TO STAND WITH
AUTHORITY. IT’S THE
TRUTH THAT WE KNOW, IN TERMS OF WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT
GATHERING THIS KNOWLEDGE, AND THE AWESOME RESPONSIBILITY
OF HAVING THIS KNOWLEDGE, AND ALMOST BEING SCARED OF
GAINING MORE KNOWLEDGE. I DON’T KNOW IF I
WANT ANY MORE OF GOD. I DON’T KNOW IF I CAN HANDLE
ANY MORE OF GOD, YOU KNOW? BUT HE CALLS FOR US TO
MOVE ON TOWARD MATURITY. WHY? BECAUSE WE’RE
GROWING CLOSER TO HIM. WE’RE GROWING STRONGER IN HIM. WE’RE LOSING MORE OF
OURSELVES THAT WE MIGHT HAVE
MORE OF HIM FILLING US UP, THAT WE MIGHT BE ABLE
TO GIVE IT OVER, SO THAT WE
CAN SET THE CAPTIVES FREE. THAT’S WHAT THE GOSPEL IS FOR. WINTLEY: FROM THE CLASS
IN DOWNTOWN BOSTON, IT TAKES A
LITTLE LESS THAN TWO HOURS… TO REACH THE OLD HISTORIC NEW
ENGLAND COMMUNITY ON CAPE COD. DESMOND’S BEEN INVITED
TO DR. KROEGER’S HOUSE. DR. KROEGER: WELL, HI,
YOU FOUND ME. DESMOND: YES, I DID. DR. KROEGER: ALL THE
WAY ON CAPE COD. BLESS YOUR HEART. COME IN. WELL, GREAT, GREAT GRANDMOTHER
BUILT THIS WHILE GREAT, GREAT
GRANDFATHER WAS AT SEA… IN 1799, AND IT’S BEEN IN
THE FAMILY EVER SINCE. DR KROEGER: NOW, THIS USED TO BE
THE FRONT PARLOR WHERE GRAND
PEOPLE WERE ENTERTAINED. YOU’RE A GRAND PERSON SO
I’LL BRING YOU IN HERE. HERE IN 1802,
THE TOWN FATHERS MET… AND DIVIDED UP THE TOWN
OF BREWSTER FROM THE
TOWN OF HARWICH. THEY WERE HAVING A CHURCH
FIGHT AND THEY WEREN’T
GETTING ALONG TOO WELL. DESMOND: SO WHAT
CAME OUT OF THAT? DR KROEGER: WELL, THE TOWN
OF BREWSTER WAS FORMED. THEY WERE SO MAD, THEY SPATTERED
INK ALL OVER THE DESK. AND GREAT, GREAT
GRANDFATHER BECAME THE
FIRST REPRESENTATIVE… TO THE HOUSE OF
REPRESENTATIVES IN BOSTON. DESMOND: WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT
YOUR GREAT, GREAT GRANDFATHER, YOU HAVE A GREAT AND
LONG LINEAGE HERE. DR KROEGER: LOOK AT THIS BED. THIS IS WHERE MY ANCESTORS
WERE CONCEIVED, BORN AND DIED, AND I LIVE IN THE
SAME HOUSE WITH IT. I HAVE THIS VERY STRONG SENSE OF
HISTORY, AND IT’S SO IMPORTANT. AND OH, THAT WE COULD FIND
THIS KIND OF HISTORY FOR
AFRICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE. DESMOND:
NO QUESTION, YOU HAVE A LOT OF
THINGS THAT ARE PASSED DOWN… FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION
THAT LINK YOU TO YOUR PAST. AS FOR ME, I CAN ONLY
GO AS BACK AS FAR AS MY
GRANDMOTHER’S GRANDMOTHER. SO I FIND THAT I WANT TO GO
BACK FURTHER, MAYBE TO AFRICA, BUT IT’S CUT OFF FOR ME. DR KROEGER: WELL, I BELIEVE
THERE ARE WAYS OF TRACING IT.
AND THEY’RE DIFFICULT. OFTEN PEOPLE HAVEN’T CARED,
THEY HAVE MISLAID THINGS,
BUT THEY CAN BE RETRIEVED… INCH BY INCH.
IT TAKES A LOT OF EFFORT.
BUT IT’S IMPORTANT TO DO. ALL OF US NEED TO KNOW WHO
WE ARE AND WHERE WE CAME
FROM, WHAT OUR ROOTS WERE. DESMOND: NO QUESTION.
I THINK YOUR RESEARCH GIVES
US A GREAT OPPORTUNITY, AS AFRICAN AMERICANS,
TO THEN TRACE THAT BACK,
AS YOU WERE TALKING. DR KROEGER: AND ALSO
TO UNDERSTAND WHAT OUR
SPIRITUAL ROOTS ARE. “FAITH OF OUR FATHERS,
HOLY FAITH,” SUCH PRECIOUS AND
WONDERFUL SAINTS OF GOD
THAT WERE AFRICANS. WE NEED TO CLAIM THAT FAITH. ALL OF US NEED THAT. BUT IT’S SO IMPORTANT, I THINK,
FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS
TO UNDERSTAND… WHAT THEIR TRADITION IS. DR. KROEGER: HERE’S A BOOK
YOU MIGHT BE INTERESTED IN. IT IS MY GREEK NEW
TESTAMENT, BUT DOWN AT
THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE, IT LISTS HOW TEXTS
CAN BE RECONSTRUCTED. WHAT WERE OTHER VERSIONS? AFTER ALL, EVERY COPY
OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
HAD TO BE DONE BY HAND. I’VE TOLD YOU
ABOUT QUODVULTDEUS, THE BISHOP OF CARTHAGE.
LOOK HOW IMPORTANT HE IS. AGAIN AND AGAIN, HE IS QUOTED, AND I UNDERLINE EVERY
TIME THAT HE TURNS UP, BECAUSE HE’S SO IMPORTANT IN
THE HISTORY OF PRESERVATION
OF THE SCRIPTURES, AND INTERPRETATION
OF THE SCRIPTURES. WINTLEY: DR. CATHERINE KROEGER
IS NOT CONTENT TO SIMPLY
TEACH CLASSES ABOUT AFRICA, AND GREAT AFRICANS IN THE BIBLE. THOUGH NOW IN HER EIGHTIES,
SHE’S LEADING A STUDY TOUR
TO AFRICA, AND SHE’LL TELL YOU WHY. TO INSTILL IN PERSONS OF AFRICAN
DESCENT A SENSE OF CONFIDENCE
IN GOD’S LOVE FOR THEM, IN GOD’S EMPOWERMENT FOR THEM,
IN GOD’S PLACE OF IMPORTANCE
FOR THEM. THE MAIN MOTIVATION FOR MY
ATTENDING THE STUDY TOUR… WAS REALLY TO FIND OUT TRUTH, AND REALLY DEAL WITH A LOT OF
THE MISCONCEPTIONS… THAT I’VE EXPERIENCED
AS AN AFRICAN AMERICAN, FROM MY OWN PEOPLE, YOU KNOW,
AND FROM PEOPLE OF OTHER
HERITAGES AS WELL. WINTLEY: THE STUDY TOUR VIEWS
COPIES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN
DRAWINGS ON PAPYRUS PAPER. USING PAPYRUS TO MAKE
PAPER IS ONE OF THE OLDEST
PROCESSES IN THE WORLD. THE PAPYRUS PAPER CAN LAST
FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS IN
THE DRY CLIMATE OF EGYPT. IN FACT, THE OLDEST KNOWN
MANUSCRIPT FRAGMENT OF THE
NEW TESTAMENT EVER FOUND… WAS DISCOVERED HERE IN EGYPT. THE PAPYRUS MANUSCRIPT HAS BEEN
DATED BETWEEN 125 AND 250 A.D. IT CONTAINS VERSES FROM THE
GOSPEL OF JOHN, CHAPTER 18. ONE SIDE IS TRANSLATED TO READ: WINTLEY: WHAT IS TRUTH? THIS FRAGMENT STANDS AS A
WITNESS AND AS EVIDENCE, NOT ONLY TO THE TRUTH
ABOUT JESUS THE KING, BUT THE TRUTH ABOUT THE STORY
OF JESUS REACHING AFRICA, JUST A FEW DECADES AFTER
THE APOSTLE JOHN ORIGINALLY
WROTE HIS GOSPEL. JERUSALEM IS ONLY A FEW
DAYS’ WALK FROM EGYPT. JERUSALEM, WHERE JESUS
REVEALED HIS IDENTITY. IT’S PALM SUNDAY. THESE ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX
CHRISTIANS CARRY PALM
BRANCHES AS REMINDERS, REMINDERS OF THE DAY WHEN
JESUS ENTERED JERUSALEM, WELCOMED WITH PALM BRANCHES
BY THE JEWISH PEOPLE, WELCOMED AS THE MESSIAH,
THE KING, JUST A FEW DAYS
BEFORE HE WAS CRUCIFIED. WHAT IS INTERESTING
IS THAT THESE ETHIOPIAN
ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS… TRACE THEIR SPIRITUAL
BEGINNINGS BACK TO ONE MAN, BACK TO ONE OF THE FIRST
GENTILES TO FOLLOW JESUS, THE MAN THE BIBLE NAMES
AS THE ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH. BUT DID THE ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH
ACTUALLY COME FROM THE COUNTRY
WE KNOW TODAY AS ETHIOPIA? NOW, OF COURSE THERE’S ALSO
THE KEY PASSAGE IN ACTS 8… ABOUT THE SO-CALLED
ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH. AND THAT CAN BE SOMEWHAT
MISLEADING BECAUSE THE TERM
ETHIOPIA… COMES FROM THE GREEK
WORD AITHIOS , WHICH MEANT, LITERALLY,
SUNBURNED FACE. AND THIS WAS USED
BY THE GREEKS… OF NATIVES WHO WERE
OF DARK COMPLEXION, INCLUDING NATIVES IN INDIA,
BUT PRIMARILY THE AREA
SOUTH OF EGYPT, WHICH IS TODAY THE MODERN
COUNTRY OF SUDAN. NOW, WE KNOW MORE SPECIFICALLY
THE EXACT LOCATION OF THE
KINGDOM… FROM WHICH THIS OFFICIAL CAME, BECAUSE HE IS CALLED THE
TREASURER OF QUEEN CANDACE. AND CANDACE IS DERIVED FROM
A TITLE CALLED KANDAKE, WHICH IS THE NAME OF THE QUEEN
MOTHER OF THE KINGDOM OF MEROE. WINTLEY: GERMAN AUTHOR AND
SCHOLAR, DR. ROLAND WERNER… HAS RESEARCHED CHRISTIAN
HISTORY IN AFRICA. WE DO NOT ONLY FIND
IT IN THE BIBLE, WE ALSO HAVE A LOT
OF INSCRIPTIONS… IN OLD MEROITIC TEMPLES
IN THE NORTH OF SUDAN… THAT GIVE THIS TITLE OF
THE QUEEN MOTHER, CANDACE. SO WE CAN CLEARLY IDENTIFY
THE COUNTRY THAT THIS
MAN IN ACTS 8 CAME FROM. HE CAME FROM MEROE. AND THE MEROITIC EMPIRE, AGAIN,
WAS A VERY POWERFUL EMPIRE, AND IT WAS OFTEN RULED
BY A QUEEN MOTHER BY
THE NAME OF KATOKI, OR KANDAKE, OR AS WE SAY
IN ENGLISH, OF CANDACE. AND HERE WE HAVE A SANDSTONE
RELIEF OF ONE OF THESE QUEENS,
WE DON’T KNOW HER NAME. BUT WHAT IS INTERESTING IS THAT
SHE IS IN A VERY AFRICAN…
PORTRAYED IN A VERY AFRICAN WAY. SHE HAS TWO EGYPTIAN
GODDESSES ON EITHER SIDE, AND THESE GODDESSES
HAVE THESE AMPHORA, OR THESE JUGS OVER THEIR
KNEES, WITH WATER POURING OUT. THIS IS TO SYMBOLIZE
THE ABUNDANCE OF WATER OF
LIFE THAT COMES FROM THE NILE, AND THAT SHE AS THE QUEEN
PROVIDES, IN A WAY,
FOR HER PEOPLE. DR. KROEGER: THERE IS A BRACELET
THAT ONCE ADORNED THE ARM… OF A CANDACE FROM
THE FIRST CENTURY A.D. WAS SHE THE QUEEN FOR
WHOM THE ROYAL TREASURER
WENT TO JERUSALEM? WELL, WE DON’T KNOW. THE CHURCH FATHERS WERE VERY
MUCH EXCITED BY THE STORY OF
HOW PHILIP HAD… BROUGHT AN ETHIOPIAN TREASURER,
A HIGH COURT OFFICIAL,
TO CHRIST, BECAUSE THEY KNEW THAT
MEANT THAT THE GOSPEL HAD
GONE DEEP INTO AFRICA, AND THAT IT HAD BEEN TAKEN
BY A DARK-SKINNED PERSON. AS PHILIP APPROACHED THE
CARRIAGE HE HEARD THE MEROITIC
COURT OFFICIAL READING, OUT LOUD, A PORTION FROM
THE BOOK OF ISAIAH, WHICH HE HAD BOUGHT IN
JERUSALEM, PROBABLY IN GREEK. AND THE REASON WE KNOW THAT HE
WAS ABLE TO UNDERSTAND GREEK IS
THAT WE HAVE EVIDENCE… THAT AT THIS TIME, GREEK WAS
USED AS A COURT LANGUAGE
IN THE KINGDOM OF MEROE. SO, THEY WERE ABLE TO CONVERSE
IN A COMMON LANGUAGE AND THEY
SPOKE ABOUT WHAT THIS MEANT. AND PHILIP ASKED HIM: AND THE MEROITIC COURT
OFFICIAL SAID:

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